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Demography Basics

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About Demography

Text of Demography Basics

  • Planning and DemographyDemography is the scientific study of human population. Demographers are very interested in: 1) Population size, 2) Population composition, 3) Population distribution, 4) Causes of changes in these factors over time, 5) Consequences of these changes over time.Demographers study in detail these changes over time, investigating issues such as changes in fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration.Planners are also very interested in these very same issues, but from a perspective of: --how do population changes influence the demand for and provision of infrastructure and public services --how will population changes impact the environment --how do population changes influence changes in land use

  • Population SizePopulation size: The number of people in a given geography at a given time. U.S., Florida, and Leon County Population 1960-2000USFLLC

    Natural Increase: The amount of population increase attributable to a greater number of births than deaths. --In US in 1990, 17 births per 1000, 9 deaths per 1000 a natural increase of 8 per 1000 (0.8%) (290 million) --World 1.8% per year for natural increase (6.26 billion)Use the Rule of 70 to determine doubling time: Divide 70 by the growth rate. So World will double population in ~39 years (70/1.8 = ~39)

    19601970198019902000179,323,175203,211,926226,545,805248,709,873281,421,9064,951,5606,789,4439,746,32412,937,92615,982,37874,225103,047148,665192,493239,452

  • Population DistributionPopulation distribution: The location of population across geography/space.Major shifts in population distribution occurred in the Twentieth Century in the United States:--Concentration: Movement from Rural to Urban/Metro Areas--Deconcentration: Movement from Central Cities to Suburbs--Migration from the Rust Belt to the Sun BeltPlanners are particularly interested in these changes and their impacts on the built and natural environments.These macro-level changes have tremendous impacts upon communities of all sizes and in all areas of the United States.

  • Concentration IllustratedRoughly 4 of every 5 Americanslives in a metropolitan area now.

  • Deconcentration IllustratedAs of 2000, 1 of every 2 Americanslives in a suburban area.

  • Regional Shifts Illustrated

  • Regional Shifts Illustrated

  • Population CompositionPopulation composition: The characteristics of the population. Among those characteristics of interest to demographers and planners are: --Age --Sex --Race/EthnicityAgain, the United States experienced many changes in these attributes throughout the Twentieth Century: --An aging population --The rise of women --An increasingly racially and ethnically diverse population

  • An Aging Population Illustrated

  • An Aging Population Illustrated

  • The Rise of Women Illustrated

  • A Diversifying Population Illustrated

  • A Diversifying Population Illustrated

  • Population PyramidsOne way of looking at changes in the composition of a population is through Population Pyramids.Population pyramids show the composition of a population by age and sex (percent population in all age-sex cohorts)These pyramids typically show the following:--Males on left side/Females on the right side--Age groups as individual cohorts going from youngest on the bottom to oldest on the topThese pyramids can be done for different geographies and/or different racial and ethnic groups.

  • U.S. Population Pyramids 1900, 1950, 2000

  • Floridas Population Pyramid, 2000

    Chart2

    -0.03033134370.0288477722

    -0.03310120680.0314522657

    -0.03389526890.0322415726

    -0.03262806070.030821008

    -0.02973137040.0283519762

    -0.03154793360.0307305333

    -0.0343552130.0337661892

    -0.03948786590.0394140346

    -0.0379529880.0386443119

    -0.03316546510.0347468318

    -0.02972905530.0318436969

    -0.02428562260.0271158022

    -0.02155886940.0245854528

    -0.02123864170.0242799288

    -0.02059224230.0247502593

    -0.01677641460.0218093953

    -0.01049925110.0149938889

    -0.00701772920.0137105379

    Source: 2000 Census SF1, Table P12

    Males

    Females

    Age Cohorts

    Percent Population

    The Data Work

    State of Florida Population Pyramid, 2000

    Making a Pop Pyramid in Excel

    STEP 1STEP 2STEP 3

    ORIGINAL DATA FROM SF1DATA COLLAPSED INTO 5 YEARDATA PREPARED FOR POP

    Population Data: Sex by Age, 2000AGE-SEX COHORTSPYRAMID MAKING IN EXCEL

    Source: SF1, Table 12A

    Male:Female:MalesFemalesMalesFemales

    Under 5 years484,767461,0560-4484,767461,0560-4-3.03%2.88%

    5 to 9 years529,036502,6825-9529,036502,6825-9-3.31%3.15%

    10 to 14 years541,727515,29710-14541,727515,29710-14-3.39%3.22%

    15 to 17 years315,456296,31915-19521,474492,59315-19-3.26%3.08%

    18 and 19 years206,018196,27420-24475,178453,13220-24-2.97%2.84%

    20 years101,31396,05525-29504,211491,14725-29-3.15%3.07%

    21 years94,96789,94330-34549,078539,66430-34-3.44%3.38%

    22 to 24 years278,898267,13435-39631,110629,93035-39-3.95%3.94%

    25 to 29 years504,211491,14740-44606,579617,62840-44-3.80%3.86%

    30 to 34 years549,078539,66445-49530,063555,33745-49-3.32%3.47%

    35 to 39 years631,110629,93050-54475,141508,93850-54-2.97%3.18%

    40 to 44 years606,579617,62855-59388,142433,37555-59-2.43%2.71%

    45 to 49 years530,063555,33760-64344,562392,93460-64-2.16%2.46%

    50 to 54 years475,141508,93865-69339,444388,05165-69-2.12%2.43%

    55 to 59 years388,142433,37570-74329,113395,56870-74-2.06%2.48%

    60 and 61 years139,959159,32875-79268,127348,56675-79-1.68%2.18%

    62 to 64 years204,603233,60680-84167,803239,63880-84-1.05%1.50%

    65 and 66 years133,956152,89185+112,160219,12785+-0.70%1.37%

    67 to 69 years205,488235,160TOTAL7,797,7158,184,663

    70 to 74 years329,113395,56815,982,378

    75 to 79 years268,127348,566

    80 to 84 years167,803239,638

    85 years and over112,160219,127

    TOTAL7,797,7158,184,663

    The Pop Pyramid

    The Pop Pyramid

    -0.03033134370.0288477722

    -0.03310120680.0314522657

    -0.03389526890.0322415726

    -0.03262806070.030821008

    -0.02973137040.0283519762

    -0.03154793360.0307305333

    -0.0343552130.0337661892

    -0.03948786590.0394140346

    -0.0379529880.0386443119

    -0.03316546510.0347468318

    -0.02972905530.0318436969

    -0.02428562260.0271158022

    -0.02155886940.0245854528

    -0.02123864170.0242799288

    -0.02059224230.0247502593

    -0.01677641460.0218093953

    -0.01049925110.0149938889

    -0.00701772920.0137105379

    Source: 2000 Census SF1, Table P12

    Males

    Females

    Age Cohorts

    Percent Population

    State of Florida Percent Population by Age and Sex, 2000

    Sheet3

  • Franklin County Population Pyramid, 2000

    Chart1

    -0.02735849060.0259958071

    -0.02777777780.0263102725

    -0.03291404610.0319706499

    -0.0281970650.029245283

    -0.02201257860.0237945493

    -0.02987421380.0259958071

    -0.03113207550.0259958071

    -0.03689727460.0362683438

    -0.03165618450.0362683438

    -0.03165618450.0374213836

    -0.03532494760.0374213836

    -0.04014675050.0370020964

    -0.03689727460.0346960168

    -0.0276729560.0258909853

    -0.02358490570.0233752621

    -0.01666666670.0169811321

    -0.00817610060.0157232704

    -0.00733752620.014360587

    Source: 2000 Census SF1, Table P12

    Males

    Females

    Age Cohorts

    Percent Population

    The Data Work

    Franklin County Population Pyramid, 2000

    Making a Pop Pyramid in Excel

    STEP 1STEP 2STEP 3

    ORIGINAL DATA FROM SF1DATA COLLAPSED INTO 5 YEARDATA PREPARED FOR POP

    Population Data: Sex by Age, 2000AGE-SEX COHORTSPYRAMID MAKING IN EXCEL

    Source: SF1, Table 12A

    Male:Female:MalesFemalesMalesFemales

    Under 5 years484,767461,0560-42612480-4-2.74%2.60%

    5 to 9 years529,036502,6825-92652515-9-2.78%2.63%

    10 to 14 years541,727515,29710-1431430510-14-3.29%3.20%

    15 to 17 years315,456296,31915-1926927915-19-2.82%2.92%

    18 and 19 years206,018196,27420-2421022720-24-2.20%2.38%

    20 years101,31396,05525-2928524825-29-2.99%2.60%

    21 years94,96789,94330-3429724830-34-3.11%2.60%

    22 to 24 years278,898267,13435-3935234635-39-3.69%3.63%

    25 to 29 years504,211491,14740-4430234640-44-3.17%3.63%

    30 to 34 years549,078539,66445-4930235745-49-3.17%3.74%

    35 to 39 years631,110629,93050-5433735750-54-3.53%3.74%

    40 to 44 years606,579617,62855-5938335355-59-4.01%3.70%

    45 to 49 years530,063555,33760-6435233160-64-3.69%3.47%

    50 to 54 years475,141508,93865-6926424765-69-2.77%2.59%

    55 to 59 years388,142433,37570-7422522370-74-2.36%2.34%

    60 and 61 years139,959159,32875-7915916275-79-1.67%1.70%

    62 to 64 years204,603233,60680-847815080-84-0.82%1.57%

    65 and 66 years133,956152,89185+7013785+-0.73%1.44%

    67 to 69 years205,488235,160TOTAL4,7254,815

    70 to 74 years329,113395,5689,540

    75 to 79 years268,127348,566

    80 to 84 years167,803239,638

    85 years and over112,160219,127

    TOTAL7,797,7158,184,663

    The Pop Pyramid

    The Pop Pyramid

    -0.02735849060.0259958071

    -0.02777777780.0263102725

    -0.03291404610.0319706499

    -0.0281970650.029245283

    -0.02201257860.0237945493

    -0.02987421380.0259958071

    -0.03113207550.0259958071

    -0.03689727460.0362683438

    -0.03165618450.0362683438

    -0.03165618450.0374213836

    -0.03532494760.0374213836

    -0.04014675050.0370020964

    -0.03689727460.0346960168

    -0.0276729560.0258909853

    -0.02358490570.0233752621

    -0.01666666670.0169811321

    -0.00817610060.0157232704

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