Chapter 6 sociolinguistics

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Chapter 6 Language Variation

Chapter 6Language VariationPresenterAmire Jabbariniya

Social Variation

The relationship between linguistic variation and social variation.

Gumpers study of Khallapur village in IndiaRestricted to live in certain neighborhoods

Have less freedom to move in the villageHindu caste membership of KhalapurEach caste has distinct phonological features that are clear markers of social group membership.

Upper castes innovate away from the lower caste in their speech. On the other hand lower caste try to reduce this distinction.Hypercorrect = Overextend a particular usage Wolfram and Fasolds non socio-economic rankings were based on factors like:With the current emphasis on lifestyle in classifying people, consumptions of good and appearance are important in social classification.For collecting data about the variants and social distribution of a linguistic variable we must relate them to quantifiable factors such as:

age - gender ethnicity race - - social class membership

Easier to the most complicatedChurch membershipCommunity organizations...All scales take into account factors like:Scales must vary from community to community because any time/regional factor has its own problems.(Bainbdridge) disadvantages of social class designations are:Treating class as an independent variable and variants of speech as a dependent variable and never reconsidering their nature. Chambers Class is not a clear concept and fuzziness is always present.

Disadvantage Lack of generalizability of results

Social space is multidimensional but systems of social classification are one-dimensional.

Idiolect = Speech characteristics and linguistic behavior of individuals.Highly representative of the linguistic behavior of all the speakers of that lang.

Sociolect = Speech characteristics of members of social groups.The more the groups are real ( members feel that they do belong to the group) a sociolect has validity.

Milory network relationship: network of relationships that an individual belongs to. unique specific structures most powerful and interesting influences on linguistic behavior Data Collection and Analysis2 basic dimensions of examining hypothesis:

1) Devising a plan for collecting data2) Collecting data from a representative sample of speakersQuestionnaire ( the usual device)1) Casual situation2) Interview situation3) The reading aloud of a story4) The reading aloud of lists of words and pairs of wordsVery casualMore formalThe most formal

Sampling: Finding a representative group of speakersRandom samplingJudgment samplingStratified samplingA genuine studyThoroughly representativeCompletely unbiasedRepresenting all sub-segments

Investigations with time dimensions1) Apparent-time studies

2) Real-time studies Panel studyTrend study

Socially significant linguistic variation requires correlation (Labov).

Quantitative studies should haveReliability How objective and consistent the measurement of actual linguistic data are.ValidityTo what extent the sociolinguist is measuring what he/she is claiming to be measuring.Standard deviationLevel of significanceetc.THE END