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Presentation:Socio-linguisticsTopic:Code-Switching&Code-BorrowingPresented to:Sir MoazzamPresented by:Memoona Ejaz_007Jaweria Akram_033Noreen Karim_003Ayesha Siddiqa_030Tayyaba Riaz_017Rabeya Javaid_005

Is a term in Sociolinguistics referring to the use of more than one language or variety in conversation.It is syntactically and phonolically appropriate use of languageSome commentators say that it is the lack of language ability and some others say,it is a normle and natural product of interaction between bilingual speakers language.CODE-SWITCHING

TYPES OF CODE-SWITCHINGIntersentential CS:Switching from one language to another for whole sentences at a timeWhere were you yesterday?Main ne boht intezar kia but you did not come.Intrasentential CS:Switching languages in the middle of the a sentenceIt is used to emphasize the particular word,idiomWo baby boht sweet hai.

Situational CS:The switching of languages according to situationsIn different domains people speak different languagesEnglish with teachers(more formal),urdu with friends and another language at homeMetaphorical CS:Switching of a language based on speakers intimacy and solidarityGrandparents talk about Punjabi literature always in native language(Urdu,Punjabi)

WHO CODE-SWITCHESIt is referred to bilingual conversationalists who are engaged in code-switching almost everyday.With different kinds of people they have different level of interaction and that is why they switch from one register to anotherWith boss they might use English language,another language with friends and different language at home

SOCIAL MOTIVATION FOR CODE-SWITCHINGIt concentrates on the immediate discourse factors such as lexical need,the topic and setting of discussion and to create the single or group identity and solidarity.

CODE-SWITCHING WITH FORMALITYChildren who learn multiple languages simultaneously,also learn their appropriate use That is why a child whose mother is Spanish speaks Spanish mother and English with British fatherThe native speakers of language do the same thing with different levels of formalityCorrect tone on the paper-better gradeInformle grammar in paper-bad impression

BEHAVIORISTS & MENTALISTSMentalist Chomsky says that the rules of grammar are innate calling them universal grammar and a child exposure to a particular language is the use of that knowledgeBehaviourists oppose this theory saying that language is learnt by reinforcement and imitation.

FUNCTIONS OF CODE-SWITCHINGTo communicate more effectivelyTo emphasize a point To help mood of the speakerHabitual experienceSemantic significance To attract the attention of reader/listenerTo show linguistic skillsTo facilitate the languageTo show ethnicityFloor holding

COMMUNICATIONTo ease communication, i.e., Utilizing the shortest and the easiest routeTo communicate more effectivelyTo establish goodwill and supportOne wishes to create a certain communication effectOne wishes to exclude another person from the dialogue

TO EMPHASISE A POINTSwitching is also used to emphasize a point. Gal (1979) reports an example from English/German code switching and stressed that switching from English to German is a means of adding more force to the statement. David (2003) uses the courtroom environment to show switching from dominant Bahasa Malaysia to English is to emphasize an important point to the judge

MOOD OF THE SPEAKERMalik (1994) claims that usually when bilinguals are tired or angry, code switching takes place with a new dimension. when the speaker is in the right state of mind, he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in the base language. From (x,y) languages, language Y may be more available at the point of time when the speaker has a disturbed mind.

HABITUAL EXPERIENCEMalik.(1994) stresses the fact that code switching often occurs in fixed phrases of greeting and parting, commands and request, invitation, expressions of gratitude and discourse markers such as Oyes (listen), you know or pero (but), whereas Hoffman (1971) reports that in Puerto Rican homes, the mother gives short commands to their children in English, such as Dont do that. and the rest of the mothers warning will be in Spanish.

SEMANTIC SIGNIFICANCEMalik (1994), Gumperz (1970, 1976, 1982), and Gumperz and Hernandez (1972) all stresses that switching at a particular moment conveys semantically significant information. It is a communicative resource that builds on participants perception of two languages. Lexical choice conveys meaning during codeswitching. Gal (1979) reinforced this view by stating that listeners interpret codeswitching as an indicator of the speakers attitude, or communicative intents and emotions as code switching is a tool for conveying appropriate linguistic and social information.

TO ATTRACT ATTENTIONMalik (1994) shows that in advertisements (in both, written as well as in spoken) in India, codeswitching is used to attract the attention of the readers/listeners. In English newspaper when the readers come across non-English, either Hindi or any one of the other Indian languages, the readers attention is automatically drawn to depend on the language background he/she originates from. A similar situation prevails in advertisements that involve audio and video output.

EMPHASISTo capture attention, i.e., Stylistic, emphatic, emotionalTo emphasize a pointOne wants to make a pointTo emphasize a pointTo attract attention

A word from one language that has been adapted for use in another.



Greek word etymon the true sense of a wordRefers to its origin and historical development.Its earliest known use.Etymology studies word histories.

EXAMPLE..According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the definition of the word disaster is "an occurrence causing widespread destruction and distressEtymologygreat misfortunes on the influence of the starsIn the late 16th century Shakespeare King LearOld Italian word disastro means unfavorable to ones stars


Latin root word astrumModern astronomy starWith negative Latin prefix dis (apart) added to astrum (star)This word in Latin, Old Italian, and Middle French conveyed same idea evil influence of a star or planet or catastropheSo, todays definition is obsolete.

Code Borrowing

The adoption of a word from one language into the lexicon to the other . ( C.F Claque ) Borrowing is the process of acquiring loan words. (Encyclopedia of Language and learning)

Code borrowing is the process whereby one language absorbs words and expression , and possibly sounds and grammatical forms , from another Language and adopts them to its own use .

Mayer Scotton Use Social approach Shau ne Paplack Use structural approachApproaches to distinguish b/w Code switching and code borrowing

According to Mayer Scotton frequency use of words should be criteria to judge where it is Borrowed or Switched . Paplack has proposed morpho syntactic and phonological integration of foreign words into the recipient language .

She has proposed three criteria

Phonological : sound system Morphological : morphological systemSyntactical : sentence structure

CODE-BORROWING IN URDU LANGUAGEMixed language old name Rekhta means mixed oneTook its shape in the region of Punjab and Delhi during the Ghaznaw and the early Sultanate periodFirst mingling of the Hindu-Muslim cultures occurred causing a productive intermixture of Persian, Turkish and Arabic languagesIt attained a literary status in the South before it was employed by the writers in the NorthBecame popular during the post-Aurengzeb period in the beginning of the 18thC

Center shifted from Delhi to Lucknow and other places till the establishment of the Fort William College at Calcutta.In the course of centuries, Urdu borrowed thousands of words and phrases from Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hindi and also from European languages.According to Farhang-e-safiyah, there are about 73% words of Indian origin in Urdu, 26% words are of Arabic, Persian and Turkish origin, and approximately 1% words from European languages


shdi-biyh marriagedhan-daulat wealthdang-fasd disturbancebl-bache childrenhansi-mazq joke, wit

eelchi an ambassador,atliq a private tutor, an instructorChq active, alert The suffix /ci/ is common in Turkish wordsToopci gunnerBwarci cook

Words with Hindi and Persian or Arabic originWords borrowed in Urdu from Turkish

CONT../gulb/ rose/seb/ applebdm/ almond/takyh/ pillow/cdar/ sheet/kGhaz/ paper/siyhi/ ink/diwr/ a wall/siph/ soldier/shdi/ wedding/chahlum/ the fortieth day of mourning/mazdr/ a labourer/mizj/ temper, disposition, health/mazr/ shrine/mahal/ palace/qalm/ pen/mubligh/ sum, quantity/bqi/ balance, arrears/kursi/ chair/qmh minced meat/lihf/ quilt/qamis/ shirtPERSIAN WORDSARABIC WORDS

Examples of borrowed words in English language are:thug is a borrowed word in American English from Hindi language.bouquet is borrowed in English from French language.tsunami is another word used in English language for a massive tidal wave as a result of earthquake is originally from Japanese language.Few Examples:_

Human culture is open for diffusion and than borrowing. According to Sapir (1921:205), we know that myths, religious ides, types of social organizations, industrial devices and other features of culture may spread from point to point making themselves at home in culture to which they were at one time alien.So, any aspect of human culture can diffuse from community to community.Diffusion:_


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