Sociology + Linguistics= Sociolinguistics Linguistic Variation Variationsim SociolinguisticsSociophoneticsPhonetics
Greek=production of speech & sound by humans
sounds (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.
physical properties of speech:Phones (sound unit), study of acoustic , neurophysiological, and auditory perceptional characteristics Phonetics PhonologyStudy of organization of sounds in human speech
Phonology encompasses characteristics of sounds and the rules which regulate their interaction
In human languages aside from phonology, other parts also are present, such as morphology, syntax, and pragmatics.
DefinitionsSociophonetics = phonetics + sociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics = language + social groupsSocial stratification of language (social dialects)Regional dialectsIdentityPerceptual dialectology (what do non-linguists think?)
One moreVariationism =Branch of sociolinguistics dedicated to the study of linguistic variationfree variation is the f word!Qualitative + quantitative methods Ethnographyunderstand the social stuffMultivariate statisticsrelate use of lx variants to social structure, ideologies, lg style, etc.
Central tenetstructured heterogeneitylanguage contains systematic variation which can be characterized and explained by patterns of social differentiation within speech communities.
Variable RulePhonological ruleDescribes a sound change that takes place in a particular linguistic environmentVariable ruleChange that happens sometimesLx conditions may encourage or hinder rule applicationSocial factors may encourage or hinder rule application
Basic Methods1. Identify linguistic feature(s) that vary2. Sample the community.Get datainterview with reading; rapid and anonymous, etc.4. Count occurrences AND non-occurrences of the variable.
Code for linguistic factors.Select meaningful social units.Find statistical correlations between occurrence of the variable and social units (age, class, etc.)Describe observed patterns.
What is a variable?Two ways of saying the same thing.Phonological: -ing vs. in; -r vs. regular short /a/ vs. raised /a/Morphosyntactic: who vs. that vs. Discourse: verbs of quotationSay, be like, go, etc.
Coding for linguistic factorsWhat linguistic contexts govern use of this variable? Preceding soundFollowing soundSyllable positionLinguistic function or meaning
What social factors are important?Depends on the community!Use ethnography to figure this outObserve interaction, make hypothesesTest hypotheses, ask community membersSee what other people have used for the same communityStart with the classicsage, sex, race, classExperiment: jocks and burnouts vs. MC and WCConsider identity and ideology
Statistical analysisCount up the variables and analyze statisticallyThe type of data you have dictates what statistical tests you can use
Labovs original study of Marthas VineyardImpressionistic coding of /ay/ and /aw/Nucleus centralized to /y/ /w/
Change most advanced in:Middle-aged fisherman from Chilmarkpositive orientation to islandanti- summer people
Today on Marthas VineyardCentralization of /ay/ and /aw/ has been reversedLong-time residents recognize that they depend economically on new residents and tourists opposition to cooperationLong-time residents going back to mainland pronunciations of these diphthongsJosey 2004, Blake and Josey 2003
Limitations of Blake & JoseySmall, limited sample (16 males)Only one variable studied
Labov: /r/ in New York CityAfter World War II, pronunciation of post-vocalic /r/ introduced as a prestige formEx. /kard/ instead of /ka:d/ for card /fowr/ instead of /fow/ for fourChange from abovebegins above the level of consciousness, found more frequently in careful speech
/r/ in casual speech of New YorkersInterview data collected in the 1960s shows:0% /r/ in casual speech of lower class, working class, lower middle class20% /r/ in casual speech of upper middle class40% /r/ in casual speech of upper middle class 20-somethings
The Department Store StudyDesigned to investigate use of /r/ in careful speech of a socially stratified sample of New YorkersInnovative because of the rapid and anonymous survey
MethodsRapid and anonymous survey2 repetitions of fourth floorThree stores:Saks 5th Avenue (upper middle class)Macys (lower middle class)Klein (working class)Three occupations:Floorwalkers, sales clerks, sweepersOther variables: age, sex, race, unusual accent, floor within the store
Distribution by ageIts not random!Youngest members of UMC use /r/ in casual as well as careful speech as new prestige normMembers of LMC and WC one generation ahead pick up the youngsters use of /r/; in careful speech, approaches rate of UMC /r/In the word list style, LMC hypercorrectsuses higher rate of /r/ than the UMC
SummaryFine phonetic detail can serve as important markers of social identityEven when not salient for speakersPhonetics + sociolinguistics + statistics
Next timeLast quiz!! Prosody in Spanish-English bilingual discourseGender and sexual orientation issues