Sociolinguistics Chapter 2 Language Choice in Multilingual Communities

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  • Sociolinguistics Chapter 2 Language Choice in Multilingual Communities
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  • Learning Objectives Communicative repertoire Diglossia Code-switching and code-mixing
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  • Language variation 1. Different styles 2. Different pronunciation 3. Different vocabulary 4. Different grammar 5. Different dialects 6. Different languages
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  • Language variation 1. Participants 2. Setting 3. Topic 4. Function
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  • Communicative Repertoire Activity 2.1 The languages in your life: your communicative repertoire
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  • Communicative repertoire ListenSpeakReadWrite Cantonese Putonghua English Toishan Chiuchow Cantonese Putonghua English Toishan Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese English Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese English
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  • Communicative repertoire A tool kit of linguistic and communicative resources Breadth number of languages you speak Depth Level of development of each language
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  • Domains of language use Typical interactions e.g. family participantsfamily members settinghome topicfamily matters e.g. Table 2.2
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  • Modelling code choice Domain is a general concept involving social factors in code choice such as participants, setting, and topic. It is possible to draw a simple model summarising language use in a community. Example 4, Figure 2.1
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  • Diglossia The situation where two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play. (Ferguson, 1959)
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  • Diglossia 1. Two distinct varieties of the same language are used in the community, with one regarded as a high (H) variety and the other a low (L) variety. 2. Each variety is used for quite distinct functions; H and L complement each other. 3. No one uses the H variety in everyday conversation.
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  • Diglossia Activity 2.2 Functional distribution of H and L varieties across different domains of language use in diglossic situations
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  • Diglossia Domains of Language UseHL Sermon in church or mosque Instructions to servants, waiters, workmen, clerks Personal letter Speech in parliament, legislative councils, political speech University lecture Conversation with family, friends, colleagues News broadcast TV soap opera Newspaper editorial, news story, caption on picture Poetry Folk literature Popular youth magazines Facebook, Line, WhatsApp, Skype, Google Talk, WeChat
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Prestige H is superior to L. There is a usual belief that H is somehow more beautiful, more logical, better able to express important thoughts. This belief is also held by speakers whose command of H is quite limited.
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • 18 Literary heritage A sizeable body of written literature in H is held in high esteem by the speech community. Contemporary writers tend to use words, phrases, or constructions which were used in literary history.
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Acquisition L is learned by children in what may be regarded as the "normal" way of learning one's mother tongue. H is chiefly learnt by means of formal education.
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  • The grammatical structure of L is learned without explicit discussion of grammatical concepts; the grammar of H is learned in terms of "rules" and norms to be imitated. Acquisition
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Standardisation There is a strong tradition of grammatical study of the H form of the language. There are grammars, dictionaries, treaties on pronunciation, style and so on. The orthography is well established and has little variation. For the L variety, there is no settled orthography and there is wide variation in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Stability Diglossia typically persists at least several centuries, and evidence in some cases seems to show that it can last well over a thousand years. The communicative tensions arisen in diglossia situation may be resolved by the use of relatively uncodified, unstable, intermediate forms of the language and repeated borrowings of vocabulary items from H to L.
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Grammar H is more rule-governed. H has grammatical categories not present in L and has an inflectional system of nouns and verbs which is much reduced or totally absent in L. For example, Standard German has four cases in the noun and two indicative tenses in the verb; Swiss German has three cases in the noun and only one simple tense.
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • Lexicon Generally speaking, the vocabulary of H and L is shared. H includes in its total lexicon technical terms and learned expressions which have no regular L equivalents. L includes popular expressions and the names of very homely objects.
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  • There is existence of many paired items, one H and one L. Lexicon
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  • Greek H L ikos spitihouse idhor nerowater eteke eyenisegave birth als mabut Lexicon
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  • American H L illuminationlight purchasebuy childrenkids Lexicon
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  • Criteria for diglossia (Fasold, 1984) Function Prestige Literary Heritage Acquisition Standardisation Stability Grammar Lexicon Phonology
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  • H and L phonologies may be: quite close, as in the two varieties of Greek; strikingly divergent, as in Standard German and Swiss German.
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  • Extended definition of diglossia Fishman (1967, 1971) extended the notion of diglossia to any situation in which different linguistic varieties have functionally differentiated roles in a society.
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  • Diglossia and bilingualism Diglossia A characteristic of speech communities Bilingualism A characteristic of individuals
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  • 4 possible situations of diglossia + Bilingualism- Bilingualism + Diglossia + Bilingualism + Diglossia - Bilingualism - Diglossia + Bilingualism - Diglossia -Bilingualism
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  • Polyglossia Fasold (1984) proposed the term polyglossia to describe a situation in which there are more than 2 languages or varieties which stand in mutually exclusive functional relations with each other.
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  • Polyglossia One standard language is used as a H form in several different speech communities, each of which employs its own L variety. High Low 1Low 2Low 3Low 4
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  • Triglossia Three languages, A, B and C. In relation to language A, language B is L; in relation to language C, however, language B is H. Such a case has been termed double overlapping diglossia e.g. Tanzania
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  • Triglossia ______________________________________ EnglishH ____________________________________ HSwahiliL ____________________________________ LVernacular ____________________________________
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  • Double-nested diglossia H and L varieties are each themselves subdivided into H and L varieties e.g. Khalapur, India
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  • Double-nested diglossia H Oratorical style -------------Hindi-------------- Conversational style H L H Saf boli ------------Khalapur---------- Moti boli L L
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  • Linear polyglossia Three or more languages or varieties are on a continuum from H to L e.g. Malaysia
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  • Linear polyglossia Formal Malaysian EnglishH1H1 Bahasa MalaysiaH2H2 MandarinDH Colloquial Malaysian EnglishM1M1 Dominant Chinese languageM2M2 Native Chinese language L1L1 Other Chinese languagesL 2 -L n Bazaar MalayL-
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  • Diglossia in Hong Kong Chinese Speech Community Spoken language ( ) L:Cantonese Book language ( ) H:Putonghua and standard written Chinese
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  • Triglossia