Text of Sociolinguistics Chapter 3 Language Maintenance and Shift
Sociolinguistics Chapter 3 Language Maintenance and Shift
Lesson 2 Language variation 1. Different styles 2. Different pronunciation 3. Different vocabulary 4. Different grammar 5. Different dialects 6. Different languages
Lesson 2 Language variation 1. Participants 2. Setting 3. Topic 4. Function
Lesson 3 Language Choice in Multilingual Communities Communicative repertoire Diglossia Code-switching and code-mixing
Learning Objectives Language shift Language death and language loss Factors contributing to language shift Language maintenance Language revival
Language shift The process by which one language displaces another in the linguistic repertoire of a community.
Language shift Migrant minorities Non-migrant communities Migrant majorities
Chinese dialects in Hong Kong 98% of Hong Kong people are ethnically Chinese. Most people in Hong Kong speak Cantonese. What about the numbers of people speaking other Chinese dialects?
Usual languages in Hong Kong
Language Shift Case of Hakka in Hong Kong 1911Largest linguistic minority 15.1%of total population in Hong Kong 47%of total population in NT 54%of total population in northern district of NT
Example of language shift In a Hakka family: 1Grandparents speak Hakka 2Parents speak Hakka to grandparents, speak Cantonese to children 3Children speak Cantonese
Social changes 1960spoor refugee community 1960s to 1990sprovision of housing, health care, and education by the late colonial government
Demographic changes Increase in population: 1945600,000 19613.1 million 19713.9 million 19815.1 million 19916.2 million 20016.8 million 20117.0 million
Demographic changes 1)Before 1980, there were a lot of illegal immigrants because of the touchbase policy. 2)From late 1970s onward, legal immigrants arrived in Hong Kong at a rate of 75-150 per day.
Linguistic consequences 1) More children than ever before were able to get an education 2) Differences in dialect backgrounds of children were removed through the effects of schooling Dialect levelling or accent levelling
Activity Make short notes on your own family, or describe a family you know that has three generations living in Hong Kong. Cover the following points: 1. the place of birth of the grandparents, the varieties they usually use when communicating with each other, and other varieties they use to speak to other family members; 2. the place of birth of the parents and the varieties they use when communicating with the grandparents, with each other and with the children; and 3. the place of birth of the children and the varieties they use when communicating with the grandparents, with the parents, and with each other.
Language death Language death occurs when a language is no longer spoken naturally anywhere in the world. Exercise 3
Factor contributing to language shift Economic, social and political factors Demographic factorsExercise 4 Attitudes and valuesExercise 5
Language maintenance Symbol of a minority groups identity Families from the minority group live near each other Degree and frequency of contact with the homeland
Language maintenance Steps minority groups take to maintain a language: Extended families Use of the minority language in schools Institutional support (e.g. education, law and administration, the media) Exercise 6
Language revival Welsh in Wales Maori in New Zealand Hebrew in Israel Exercise 7