Chapter 11 Sociolinguistics. Outline. 1. Language and Dialect 2. Language Contact 3. Language Change: a Social P erspective 4. Language and Gender 5. T aboo 6. Sapir- Wholf Hypothesis 7. Summary. Sociolinguistics. communication Language is used for communication. idiolect - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 11 SociolinguisticsOutline1. Language and Dialect 2. Language Contact3. Language Change: a Social Perspective4. Language and Gender5. Taboo6. Sapir-Wholf Hypothesis7. Summary
SociolinguisticscommunicationLanguage is used for communication.
idiolectEvery individuals language is an idiolect.Every single individual speaks a language of his own.S/he speaks her/his own dialect.regional dialectsIndividuals share a lot of common backgrounds with others in the same community, area, or district. People living in the same area speak a language of their own. religious belief or ceremony, living style or habits, or working environments local color
social dialectsPeople doing the same jobs, or of the same interest (not living in the same area) concerned with their common topics giving rise to social dialects
language competence a successful communicationlinguistic competence (Chomsky)grammar (the linguistic intuition) grammatical sentences
People of the same community share a common communicative competence communicate successfully (social/ cultural topics)
social settings, cultural backgrounds, & to which extent one is socialized language is spoken differentlya mirror Language is a mirror of a society.What is pursued or disliked is directly or indirectly reflected.e.g. (1) expectations male: strong, brave, ambitious female: graceful, attractive (2) expressions male (in a certain manner): I am sure, I guarantee female (in an uncertain manner): I am afraid that, I am not sure that
sociolinguistics = linguistics + sociologythe target:It is to examine the nature of language from the perspective of social factors.
social factors:ones backgrounds like age, gender, education, jobs, interests and communities.1. Language and dialect1.1 The Dialects of English1.2 Dialects in Taiwan1.3 The Myth of Standard language1.4 The difference between Taiwan Mandarin and Beijing Mandarin (Putonghua)
(A) language = dialects(1) speech forms Both languages and dialects are speech forms.
(2) communication There is no specific difference in terms of communication.
Language and dialect(B) language dialects(1) in general (use) language: broader dialects: regional / social
(2) in linguistics (mutual intelligibility) languages: mutually un-intelligible (e.g. Chinese & English) dialects: mutually intelligible (e.g. British English & American English)
(C) exceptions(1) un-intelligible dialects (e.g. Chinese dialects) Mandarin, Wu, Min, Xiang, Yue, Hakka, Gan,Ping & Jin mutually un-intelligible but treated as Chinese dialects (a) share the common writing system (b) spoken within the same country, politically
(2) intelligible languages (e.g. Danish, Norwegian & Swedish) mutually intelligible but treated as independent languages
(D) two types of dialects(1) regional dialects It occurs to most people that a language would yield different accents or dialects in different areas. e.g. English in York, Newcastle, New England, Texas e.g. British  and American [a]
e.g. chicken, [ke] of Zhangzhou & [kue] in Quanzhou
(2) social dialects Social dialects are limited to some professions, which are called slogan.
e.g. terminologies sound change, code-switching, grammaticalization, lexicalization, reconstruction, c-command (X) decoded in surface lexical meaning
1.1 The Dialects of English
(A) two types(1) English as a native language It is spoken in the US, UK, Canada, New Zealand & South Africa.
(2) English as a second language It is spoken in India, Singapore, the Philippines, Nigeria
(B) Differences of American & British English(1) the r-color vowels a trill /r/, a retroflexed vowel American English (V) & British English (X)
(2) the a vowel some vowels for // American English (man) British English (father)
(3) some words / vocabulary There are some difference in words or vocabulary.
(4) syntactic difference American English: Do you have a pencil? British English: Have you a pencil?
1.2 Dialects in Taiwan(two language families)(1) Chinese language : Mandarin Southern Min Hakka(2) Formosa language: Rukai Paiwan Bunun
the linguistic atlas
1.3 The Myth of Standard Language(1) a pure myth We have to speak a standard language. There is no standard language from the sociolinguistic perspective.
(2) standard Mandarin ? Mandarin spoken in Taiwan - nativized (phonology, vocabulary, morphology, syntax) Putonghua spoken in Mainland China (3) the standard English?(a) English as a native language / a second language (?)(b) English dialects within the US Eastern New England, Northern, Midland & southern
American atlas of the English dialects
1.4 the difference between Taiwan Mandarin & Beijing Mandarin (Putonghua) (A) in phonetic sounds (1) the loss of r-retroflexation
Neutralization: The three distinct syllables with phonetic segments in Beijing Mandarin are neutralized into one homonym in Taiwan Mandarin.
the retroflexed palatal affricates of Mandarin fused with ts, tsh, s in Taiwan Mandarin
(2) shortening of diphthongs Different parameter settings give rise to different tree configurations.
(B) vocabulary Vocabulary also distinguishes Taiwan Mandarin from Beijing Mandarin.
(C) Syntactic structure a yu (have) in every sentence Taiwan Mandarin (V) & Beijing Mandarin (X)
(Taiwan Mandarin is highly influenced by Southern Min)
2. Language contact2.1 Lingua Franca2.2 Pidgin 2.3 Creole
Language contactLanguage contact-1Two languages are divided by an isogloss which exists more theoretically than practically where the isogloss between language A and B is not regular.
language contact-2One is an island surrounded by another language.
language contact-3One language is neighboring with more than two languages.
language contact - superstratum & substratum
superstratum (loaning): superior in population / politics / economicsplaying the role of loaning
substratum (borrowing):inferior in population / politics / economicsplaying the role of borrowing
e.g. (1) William the Conqueror French (superstratum) & England (substratum) (England borrowed a lot of vocabulary from French.)
(2) Japan colonized Taiwan (1895-1945) Japan (superstratum) & Taiwan (substratum) (Taiwan borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Japan.)
(3) in Taiwan Mandarin (superstratum in politics & economics) Southern Min ( superstratum in population) (mutual borrowing of vocabulary & morphological structures)
2.1 Lingua Franca Lingua Franca refers to the language for common or mutual communication (in an environment in which there is more than one language spoken).
e.g. in India English: lingua franc in Singapore English: lingua franc in Taiwan Mandarin: lingua franc 2.2 Pidgin a mixture of the two contact languages in their simplified forms
(1) foreign & un-intelligible Two languages are foreign & un-intelligible to each other. (2) simplifying / comprehensible / body languages One of the speakers would simplify his own language in such a way that it might be comprehensible to the other speakers, accompanied wit a lot of body languages.(3) mutually intelligible The speaker of the other language would do the same. In so doing, speakers of two languages are mutually intelligible to some extent.(4) pidgin A new language form comes into being when people speak simplified forms of each language.
e.g. Tok Pisin (in Papua New Guinea) Wes-Kos Pidgin (in West Africa) Guangxing (a small village of about 1200 speakers of Hakka) a pidgin: simplified Hakka + simplified Paiwan
2.3 Creole(1) pidgin creole: When a pidgin (a mixture of two simplified language forms) becomes an independent language or mother tongue of a certain people, then it becomes creole.(2) creole: (a) Portuguese: The word creole comes from Portuguese, referring to those white descendants born in colonies of Portuguese. (b) languages: It is used to refer to languages spoken in West Africa or along the Caribbean.(3) Gullah: (a) spoken in Georgia & South Carolina (b) speakers: descendants of black slavery (c) mother tongue: mother tongue of those inhabitants3. Language change: a social perspective3.1 Marthas Vineyard3.2 The r-variation in New York City
3.1 Marthas Vineyard (Labov)(1) vowel reduction why [way] [y] & wow [waw] [w]
(2) geographically Marthas Vineyard an isolated island, one hour flight from Boston people (a) descendants of those immigrating from England (b) Portuguese descendants (c) those immigrating from inland (d) others(3) economic background (age, jobs, education) (a) who was talked with na