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Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) 2010-2014secara tegas telah memberikan arah Pembangunan Pangan dan Gizi yaitumeningkatkan ketahanan pangan dan status kesehatan dan gizimasyarakat. Selanjutnya dalam Instruksi Presiden No. 3 tahun 2010tentang Program Pembangunan yang Berkeadilan yang terkait denganRencana Tindak Upaya Pencapaian Tujuan Pembangunan Milenium(MDGs), ditegaskan perlunya disusun dokumen Rencana Aksi NasionalPangan dan Gizi (RAN-PG) 2011-2015 dan Rencana Aksi Daerah Pangandan Gizi (RAD-PG) 2011-2015 di 33 provinsi.Keluaran rencana aksi diharapkan dapat menjembatani pencapaian MDGsyang telah disepakati dalam RPJMN 2010-2014 yaitu menurunnyaprevalensi gizi kurang anak balita menjadi 15,5 persen, menurunnyaprevalensi pendek pada anak balita menjadi 32 persen, dan tercapainyakonsumsi pangan dengan asupan kalori 2.000 Kkal/orang/hari.berdasarkan Data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2013, prevalensi balita gizi buruk dan kurang di Indonesia mencapai 19,6 persen. Angka tersebut meningkat dibandingkan dengan data Riskesdas 2010 sebesar 17,9 persen dan Riskesdas 2007 sebesar 18,4%.UnicefInfant and Young Child Feeding UNICEF responseGoalIn accordance with the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding (WHO-UNICEF 2003), the overall goal of UNICEFs infant and young child feeding programming is to protect, promote and support optimal infant and young child feeding, in order to improve nutrition status, growth and development, health and thus the survival of infants and young children. ActionIt is estimated that reaching all infants with a package of interventions to protect, promote and support optimal infant and young child feeding practices - breastfeeding and complementary feeding - can contribute to preventing 1.4 million and 600,000 child deaths respectively, or just over a fifth of the total annual child deaths. The good news is that breastfeeding rates are no longer declining on a global level and have increased during the last decade in many countries, thanks to concerted programming efforts. Recent data highlights that there has been substantial and encouraging progress over the last 10 years in over a dozen countries, where exclusive breastfeeding rates increased by 20 percentage points or more (UNICEF database, 2007). Many of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. These successes show that progress is possible, even in challenging situations. Positive outcomes are achieved when countries implement, at scale, a comprehensive approach to improving infant feeding practices. This could include efforts at the level of policy and legislation, health system strengthening and capacity building, community-level action and behaviour change communication initiatives. UNICEF's strategy and actions in support of infant and young child feeding, through its Medium Term Strategic Plan, underline the importance of multi-sectoral approach to improve health and nutrition. The strategy is based upon the Convention on the Rights of the Child - Article 24 - which states that governments must ensure that all sectors of society are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, including the advantages of breastfeeding. Further policy basis for the strategy includes the 1990 and 2005 Innocenti Declarations on breastfeeding and infant and young child feeding respectively and the 2003 Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. In addition, optimal infant and young child feeding supports all of the Millennium Development Goals and directly responds to the World Fit for Children goals (Paragraph 37.5).UNICEF efforts will recognize childrens and families rights and responsibilities and include suggested proven activities for advocacy and support of government and non-governmental actions at three levels: national, health system and community. As per the strategies outlined in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, UNICEFs main areas of support include:1. Support multi-sectoral national commitment and partnership by encouraging the development and implementation of: National level coordination structures Strategic public and private partnerships with other international and country-level actors in improving infant and young child nutrition National infant and young child feeding policies, standards, strategy frameworks, guidelines and training tools Programme plans to operationalize the strategy at scale Advocacy materials addressing policy and legislation, new and ongoing, to all relevant groups, such as health workers, political leadership, stakeholders and partners. Legislation and enforcement of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, subsequent relevant WHA Resolutions, the ILO Maternity Protection Convention and new legislation or other suitable measures for maternity protection and baby friendly workplaces as requiredMonitoring and evaluation2.Enhance implementation of health services and training reform (baby-friendly health care): Support for full implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in all maternity services Advocacy and technical assistance in the development of standards for baby friendly health care Support for inclusion of IYCF monitoring and evaluation into the National Health Information Systems. Review of all health system contacts to ensure that each contact includes age-appropriate feeding counseling and support for mother and child. Technical assistance for revision of pre-service and in-service training curricula to include appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding counseling and support skills, and appropriate job aids to support improved healthcare practices at all levels. Support for building-service training of health workers. Integration of maternal nutrition interventions, including micronutrient supplementation, nutrition assessment, nutrition rehabilitation and counseling integrated within antenatal care and healthy child consultations and other contacts with pregnant and lactating mothers.3. Provide support for community level programming: Support for IYCF actions within community based health and nutrition care through lay counselors, community health workers and other community cadres Emphasis on community social support for the mother (e.g. mother to mother support groups) and the ability to refer for medical support when needed, and on family and societal support for an optimal infant and young child feeding norm. 4. Support communication for social and behaviour change and advocacy: Support for national communication and social mobilization activities using multiple channels and aimed at behavior and social change related to optimal infant feeding practices. 5.Address IYCF in exceptionally difficult circumstances: Provision of guidance and operational support on feeding infants and young children in exceptionally difficult circumstances and on the related support required by mothers, families, and other caregivers, in unstable situations such as in families/communities living with HIV/AIDS or in emergencies.Community based infant and young child feedingAccelerating interventions aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) at community level is a key priority in the effort to improve survival, growth, and development of children with equity. However, in many communities IYCF practices remain far from optimal. Caregivers often lack the practical support, one-to-one counselling and correct information. Community-based IYCF counselling and support can play an important role in improving these practices: it can ensure access to these services in the poorest and the most vulnerable communities with limited access to health care, and therefore become an important strategy for programming with an equity focus. In 2010, UNICEF developed a new set of generic tools for programming and capacity development on community based IYCF counselling. Aimed for use in diverse country contexts, the package of tools guides local adaptation, design, planning and implementation of community based IYCF counselling and support services at scale. It also contains training tools to equip community workers (CWs), using an interactive and experiential adult learning approach, with relevant knowledge and skills on the recommended breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices for children from 0 up to 24 months, enhance their counselling, problem solving, negotiation and communication skills, and prepare them to effectively use the related counselling tools and job aids. To date, some 30 countries are at various stages of adapting the materials to the local context, building capacity and rolling out community based IYCF counseling and communication using the package. The generic package components are living documents. Lessons learned from training sessions across Africa and Asia were incorporated into the 2012 second edition, which also includes some additional components such as home fortification of complementary foods and early childhood development, and a supervision, mentoring and monitoring module was developed and field tested, with a final version dated October 2013. Further updates to the Facilitator Guide and Participant materials were made in 2013.Infant and Young Child FeedingGoalIn accordance with the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding, UNICEFs overall goal in this programme area is to protect, promote and support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. The expected results are improved nutrition status, growth, development, health and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It is well recognized that the period from birth to two years of age is the critical window for the promotion of good growth, health, and behavioral and cognitive development. Therefore, optimal infant and young child feeding is crucial during this period. Optimal infant and young child feeding means that mothers are empowered to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth, breastfeed exclusively for the first six months and continue to breastfeed for two years or more, together with nutritionally adequate, safe, age appropriate, responsive complementary feeding starting at six months. Maternal nutrition is also important for ensuring good nutrition status of the infant as well as safeguarding women's health. IssueExclusive breastfeeding is the perfect way to provide the best food for a babys first six months of life, benefiting children the world over. But breastfeeding is so much more than food alone; breastfed infants are much less likely to die from diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections and other diseases: a non-breastfed child is 14 times more likely to die in the first six months than an exclusively breastfed child. Breastfeeding supports infants immune systems and helps protect from chronic conditions later in life such as obesity and diabetes. Suboptimum breastfeeding still accounts for an estimated 800,000 deaths in children under five annually (about 13% of total child deaths), according to the Lancet 2013 Nutrition Series.Data from 2011indicate that only39 per cent of 0-5 month olds inlow-incomecountriesare exclusively breastfed.Adequate complementary feeding of children from 6 monthsonwards is particularly important for growth and development and the prevention of undernutrition. Childhood undernutrition remains a major health problem in resource-poor settings. in 2011, over a quarter of children less than five years of age in low-income countries, or 165 million children under five years,are stunted (low height-for-age), and large proportions are also deficient in one or more micronutrients. That means they require the addition of nutrient dense, high quality foods in sufficient quantities to their diet along with continued breastfeeding. There is evidence that complementary feeding practices are generally poor in most developing countries, meaning that many children continue to be vulnerable to largely irreversible outcomes such as stunting and poor cognitive development, as well as to significantly increased risks of infectious diseases like diarrhea and pneumonia.ActionUNICEF's strategy and actions in support of infant and young child feeding, through its new Nutrition Strategy and new Strategic Plan, underlines the importance of a multi-sectoral approach to improve health and nutrition, by taking evidence based packages of interventions to scale. The strategy is based on the 1990 Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding, the 2005 Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding and the 2003 WHO-UNICEF, Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding. UNICEF efforts recognize the rights of children and families and include proven activities for advocacy as well as support of government and non-governmental actions atfour levels: national policy, health system,community and cross-cutting communication.Guidance on assessment, design, planning and implementation of a comprehensive IYCF strategy is contained in UNICEF's Programming Guide on Infant and Young Child Feeding.Click on these links to read more on the issues and actions related to:WhoInfant and young child feedingFact sheet N342Updated July 2015

Key facts Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Undernutrition is associated with 45% of child deaths. Globally in 2013, 161.5 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted, 50.8 million were estimated to have low weight-for-height, and 41.7 million were overweight or obese. About 36% of infants 0 to 6 months old are exclusively breastfed. Few children receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods; in many countries less than a fourth of infants 623 months of age meet the criteria of dietary diversity and feeding frequency that are appropriate for their age. About 800 000 children's lives could be saved every year among children under 5, if all children 023 months were optimally breastfed1 .

OverviewUndernutrition is estimated to cause 3.1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths. Infant and young child feeding is a key area to improve child survival and promote healthy growth and development. The first 2 years of a childs life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Optimal breastfeeding is so critical that it could save about 800000 under 5 child lives every year. WHO and UNICEF recommend: early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth; exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life; and the introduction of nutritionally-adequate and safe complementary (solid) foods at 6 months together with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond.However, many inf...