Qualitative & Quantitative Research
Prova Ummay Afzalean Roll # 06 210 456 MA in ELT Rajshahi University, Rajshahi.
Introduction History Definition Purpose Determinism Activities and Steps Hybrid of Qualitative and Quantitative Qualitative Vs Quantitative Reliability, Validity and Trustworthiness Advantages and Limitations
Methods of Evaluating Qualitative Research Examples
What is research?
In a university setting, research is defined as an original investigation undertaken in order to contribute to knowledge and understanding in a particular field Research is a creative activity leading to the production of new knowledge The term Qualitative Research refers to studies that investigate the quality of relationships, activities, situations, or materials. The term Quantitative Research refers what to study. It deals in objective manner.
Qualitative Researches started in the 1920/30 in sociology (Chicago school) and anthropology (mead, Malinowski) as the study of human group life. Other disciplines such as Education, History, Political Science, Business, Medicine, Nursing, Social Works, Communication quickly follows in its wake.
Qualitative Research: A type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants, asks broad, general questions, collects data consisting largely of words ( or text) from participants, describes and analyzes these words fro themes, and conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner. All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding Donald T. Campbell.
Definition ( Cont.)
Quantitative Research:A type of educational research in which the researcher decides what to study, asks specific, narrow questions, collects numeric (numbered) data from participants, analyzes these numbers using statistics, and conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner. Theres no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0 Fred Kerlinger
Qualitative: Contextualization Interpretation Understanding actors perspectives Quantitative: Generalizability Prediction Causal Explanations
Use Quantitative if your research problem requires you to:
Measure variables. Assess the impact of these variables on an outcome. Test existing theories or broad explanations. Apply results to a large number of people.
Determinism ( Cont.):
Use Qualitative if your research problem requires you to:
Learn about the views of the people you plan to study. Assess a process over time. Generate theories based on participant perspectives. Obtain detailed information about a few people or research sites.
Activities & Steps:
Qualitative approaches on:Literature review Explicating researchers beliefs. Role of participants: subject or informant Selection of participants. Setting for data collections Approach to data analysis Saturation.
Activities & Steps (Cont.):
Quantitative Approaches on:Define a research problem or question. Review the literature. Formulate hypothesis or refine question. Make operational definitions. Design or select instruments for data. Obtain ethical approval. Collect data. Analyze data. Interpret finding Refer to Literature again. Determine Implications Draw Conclusions.
Source: Based on H.J. Steubert & D.R. Carpeter (1999). Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Ippicott.
Hybrid of Qualitative and Quantitative:Research Methods
Hybrid or Mixed Triangulation Concurrent Sequential Exploratory Sequential Explanatory Case Study Action Research
Qualitative Vs. Quantitative:QUALITATIVE
Multiple realities Reality is socially constructed Reality is context interrelated
Single reality Reality is objective Reality is context free Reductionistic Strong theoretical base
Holistic Strong philosophical perspective Reasoning is inductive
Reasoning is deductive and inductive Cause-and-effect relationships are the bases of knowledge Tests theory
Discovery of meaning is the basis of knowledge Develops theory
Qualitative Vs. Quantitative (Cont.) :QUALITATIVE
Theory developed during study Meaning of concepts Process oriented Control unimportant Rich descriptions Basic element of analysis is words Uniqueness
Theory developed a priori Measurement of variables Outcome oriented Control important Precise measurement of variables Basic element of analysis is numbers Generalization
Trustworthiness of findings Subject matter is unfamiliar Answers Why? How?
Control of error Subject matter clearly defined Answers How many? When? Where?
Qualitative Vs. Quantitative (Cont.) :QUALITATIVE Soft Flexible Subjective Political Speculative Grounded Return for new and refined observations Observe events and/or ask questions with open-ended answers Review data and draw conclusions
QUANTITATIVE Hard Fixed Objective Value-Free Hypothesis-Testing Abstract Tabulate responses Observe events/present questionnaire with fixed answers Summarized data, analyse and draw conclusions.
Reliability , validity and trustworthiness:
Researchers want their findings to reflect the truth Quentitative researchers use several criteria to assess the quality of a study, and two the most inmportant are reliability and validity Reliability refers to the accuracy and consistency (the property of holding together and retaining its shape) of information Ex. if a thermometer measured bobs temperature as 98.1F one minute and as 102.5 F the next minute , the reliability of the thermometer would be highly suspect Validity question is whether there is evidence to support the assertion that the methods are really measuring the abstract concepts that they purport to measure
Reliability, Validity and Trustworthiness:
Qualitative researchers use somewhat different criteria and different terminology in evaluating a studys quality Qualitative researchers discuss methods of enhancing the trustworthiness of the studys data Trustworthiness encompasses several different domensions-credibility, trasferability, confirmability and dependability
Reliability, Validity and Trustworthiness:
Dependability refers to evidence that is consistent and stable Confirmability is similar to objectivity, it is the degree to which study
Advantages and Limitations:
Focus on the whole of the human experience and the meanings ascribed to them by participants They provide the researcher with deep insights that would not be possible using quantitative methods The major strength of qualitative work is the validity of the data it produces Participants true reality is likely to be reflected Major limitation is its perceived lack of objectivity and generalizability Researchers become the research tools and may lack objectivity
Methods of Evaluating Qualitative Research
Developing standards of quality Lincoln and Gubas classic work shed light on how to assess truth in a qualitative report Offered four alternate tests of quality that reflect the assumptions of the qualitative paradigm:Credibility Dependability Transferability Confirmability
Example of Quantitative Research:
Research that consists of the percentage amounts of all the elements that make up Earth's atmosphere. Survey that concludes that the average patient has to wait two hours in the waiting room of a certain doctor before being selected. An experiment in which group x was given two tablets of Aspirin a day and Group y was given two tablets of a placebo a day where each participant is randomly assigned to one or other of the groups. The numerical factors such as two tablets, percent of elements and the time of waiting make the situations and results quantitative