Bahan Kursus Intervensi HLP/TB 2012 oleh Dr. Ibrahim Mohamed Zain.
QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Editor: Stephen Murray
OVERALL FRAMEWORKRESEARCH DATA
CAUSE AND EFFECT
KEEP IN MIND THAT Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjective Quantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objective
QUALITATIVE RESEARCHAgenda Definition When to use? TypesFOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.
Research used in range of activities from exploratory designs to means of completing explanations Qualitative research assumes that people have meaningful actions or experiences that can be interpreted
QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPOPULARITY COMES FROM:*ECONOMICAL *FLEXIBLE *OPENS A DOOR TO WHY, HOW *RICHNESS OF DATA *BEST TO START WITH...
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Identification of a given question; opportunity or information requirements Interest in obtaining insights for motivational /social (group) or emotional and attitudinal (individual) factors In IR: primary data of events or personalities supporting explanations and argument (Cf. In marketing: for new product launch, new service development or repositioning current product
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPSAgenda Definition When to use? TypesFOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.
Characteristics: 6-12 people Lead by a trained moderator in-depth discussion on 1 particular topic or concept Relaxed, informal atmosphere 1-3 hour duration Goal: Learn and understand what people say and why?
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPSPLANNING THE FOCUS GROUP STUDY CONDUCTING FOCUS GROUP STUDY
ANALYSIS AND REPORTING THE RESULTS
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPSADVANTAGESSynergy
Lack of analysis Moderator Subjectivity
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNQualitative Research: Examples Case studies on effect of vocational training in Papua Ethnographic studies on indigenous populations in Oaxaca, Mexico Qualitative Research Types: Case studies Developmental research Historical research Ethnograph studies Case Studies: Purpose: to do an in depth study In brief: Background, current status and/or environmental factors that interact for each group (individual, institution or community)
Characteristics of Case Studies: It gives very detailed information about individuals / group / community It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are usually more in-depth (e.g. if compared to a survey) Developmental Research: Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution / community TWO TYPES: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Historical Research: Used to gain information on an event, development and/or previous educational experience Process may involve studying previous situation, checking on current situation, and to predict if the same situation will occur again Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to answer why and how the event and repercussions occurred Useful to solve questions that involve sensitive issues Important for systematically & objectively collecting and defining facts and evidences
Procedure for Historical Research: Define the problem Specify source of evidence Collect evidence / reference materials Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects e.g. artifacts, speech text, records etc.) Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources e.g. paintings, films, news reports, documents Critique of evidences External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings, signatures, chemical analysis etc.) Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed involves evaluation of collected evidences is it important? Required?
Able to explain the researched phenomenon? Prepare the report Ethnographic Research: In-depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group Purpose to understand relationships between behaviour and culture Example: In education to understand schooling process (e.g., immigrant children) Involves widespread observations (participant & nonparticipant)
Here often starts research without hypothesis hypothesis is developed in the process of observations, and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWCharacteristics:Agenda Definition When to use? TypesFOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.
A well trained interviewer+interviewee Interviewee is exposed to set of probing questions Usually face to face Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk more
Goal: To collect as much as memory, attitudinal and behavioral data from the subject
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWApplications:-Interviews with professionals -Interviews with witnesses -When detailed probing is needed -Discussion of sensitive, confidential issues -When strong, social norms exist -Interviews with competitors
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWADVANTAGESConcentrated
issue maximum probing Free exchange of information Easier to arrange Best for intimate, sensitive issues Flexibility
consuming Exhausting for Interviewer Interviewer errors Respondent bias or reliability
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUEDefinition:*Agenda Definition When to use? TypesFOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.
These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situation They are all indirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the research
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUESProjective Techniques
Sentence Completion Tests
Picture Interpretation /Story Telling
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUESTypes: 1. Word Association Customers are required to show response to the concept they are told within 2-3 sec.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.2. Sentence Completion Customers are required to complete sentences or stories in their own words People who are concerned about ecology When I think of a city I drink a Coca-Cola, usually when . Starbucks reminds me of
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.3. Cartoon Tests
QUALITATIVE MARKETING - PROJECTIVE TECH. Hth Hntfyf hngfhnWALMART
Lets see if we can pick up some house wares at Walmart
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.4. Role Playing Respondents are asked to assume the behavior of someone else Useful for emphatic approaches for conflict resolutionSales Supervisors are asked to become Sales Represantatives, and vice versa.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.5. Third Person Way of learning respondents feelings or opinions by asking them to answer for a third party : your neighbour most people typical person
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.6.Picture Interpretation A technique whereby respondents are shown a picture and are asked to tell a story describing it
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.ADVANTAGESElicit
responses that subjects would be unwilling to give Underlying Motivations, Beliefs, Attitudes
respondents Skills are required to analyse the responses Expensive
QUALITATIVE RESEARCHCriteria1. Degree of Structure Relatively high 2. Probing of individual Low respondents 3. Moderator bias Relatively medium 4. Interpretation bias Relatively low 5. Uncovering Low subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative High information 7. Obtaining sensitive Low information 8. Involve unusual No behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Highly useful
Relatively medium Relatively low High MediumRelatively high Low to high Relatively medium Relatively high Medium to high High Medium Medium Low High
To a limited extent Useful
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEYSURVEY METHOD: STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - SURVEYSurvey Methods
Random Personal Interviewing
Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATIONEXPERIMENTATION METHOD: Scientific investigation in which an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.*
problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement
outcomes due to structured meth