Media - quantitative and qualitative research 2012

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Validating quantitative and qualitative research

Text of Media - quantitative and qualitative research 2012

  • 1. RESEARCH RESEARCHMETHODS +THEORYQUANTITATIVEQUALITATIVE

2. RESEARCHPART1RESEARCHPARADIGMS:TheBasics 3. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY TheResearchThere are many ways toconduct aresearch.You often havetoadjust your Process objectives tothefield youre working inandtotheenvironments andIntroduction people you are working with.Thefield youre working in could be website usabilityandthespecific environments andpersons(informants)you are working with could be anoffice environment andits staff. During this lesson you will work theoretically andpractically withtwo main typesofresearchprocesses: Thequantitative researchprocess +thequalitative researchprocess Literature: Thislesson isbased onKlausBruhnJensens (etal)(2005): AHandboook ofMediaandCommunication Research.Routledge. TheQuantitative ResearchProcessbyBarrieGunter(chapter 13,p.209234). TheQualitative ResearchProcessbyKlausBruhnJensen(chapter 14,p.235253). 4. RESEARCHMETHODSANDTHEORYSecondary ResearchDesk Research Desk researchrelies onexisting dataandinformation published onthenet, Secondary data inprinted magazines orany other validsource(!)TIP:Readingeconomy articles,trendnews,articles based onwebsurveys andreports fromcultural andnationalorganisationsgivesyou agood pictureofyour target group based ondesk research... 5. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY Primary Basicresearchisalso referredtoasfield research.ResearchFieldResearch Fieldresearchrefers tothecollection ofnewdatathrough primary research.Primary data That means direct contact withpeople through interviews,focus groups and surveys. Bigger andcomplex surveys are often donebybying this expertise from companies specialized inconducting effective,reliable surveys. 6. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORYResearch Often there isamix between thetwo paradigms:paradigmsIntroduction totheBasicPR I M A RYDATA S ECO N DA RYDATAConceptsQualitative Observations DocumentsData Interviews(open questions) Notes(fromsecondary source) Movie recording (actively) Letters Think aloud test Soundandmovie recordings (others material) Artifacts (tobe interpreted) Quantitative Closed questions Articles andpictures,etc.Data Surveys (tobe interpreted) Clearly defined objectivesinobservations. Statistics Pagetraffic Registrations Artifacts like forexample lettersandmovies etc.can be used tosupport primary dataforsome purposes.Statistics can also supportqualitative argumentsiuser research. 7. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORYResearch SCOPE QUANTITATIVEMETHODQUALITATIVEMETHODParadigmsExamples ofinvestigationsSurveys bymail,onlineorhandout CasestudywithinterviewIntroduction totheBasicGeneralapproach Precision:anexact mapping ofthequantitative variationEmpathy:thebest understandingofthequalitative variationConcepts Generalperspective Width:seek informationabout asmany Depth:seek asmuch informationas quantifiable unitsaspossible possible onafew qualitative units Thepurposeoftheresearch Average:seek common, Specific:findoutwhat can be said representative featurestobe unique andspecial. Criteria ofmethodology Representative:Chosen informants Relevanse:Informantsare relevantinmustrepresent thetarget group. relationtoproblemsandmeaningDesignofmethod Systematic:Survey withclosed questionsFleksibilitet:Interviewwithno clearanswers,dialogue,interaction.Levelofstructuration High:Thepossibilities ofanswers are laid Low:Openanswers andavariety of outforresponse.Lowflexibility.interpretations.Highflexibility. Key concepts ofmethodology Explanation:How.Howmany.Understanding:Why.Who thinks what Who does what.Causal explanations. about ...Meanings andattitudesExample ofwebresearch Howmany are using thesite? What motivates thetarget group tovisit andpossible methods/tools What are theuser patterns?:thewebsiteandbuy products?What are Googleanalytics combined withasurvey their preferences forcolour,menusetc?: designed forrepresentative users. Think aloud testsandfocus groups. 8. RESEARCHMETHODSANDTHEORY QUANTITATIVERESEARCHResearchTheBasicConcepts inQuantitative ResearchParadigmsIntroductionTheQuantitative approachtoresearchisbased onthescientific tradition totheBasic ofstudying aspects ofhumanrealitywithempirical proof.ConceptsResearchinanthropology,economics,geography,linguistics,history,politalscienceetc.can often be donebyinitially measuring hard facts.Quantitative researchoften aims atclosed questionsquestions yourrespondentscan answer yes or no to;questions that are very narrow defined. 9. RESEARCHMETHODSANDTHEORYQUANTITATIVERESEARCHQuantitativeExamplesResearchIntroductionNumbers:You can measure how many women there are inaroom totheBasic andyou can measure how many menthere are.ConceptsSpecific actions:You can measure peoples actions(butnotwhy they doit!)Opinions:You can measure peoples opinionsbyasking closed questions:Doyou think our primeministerwill win thenext election?This question would be followed upbyadditional (anonymous)informationfromtheinformant:gender,age,cityetc.You can use these data asvaluable information inyour researchobjective.AssignmentSeeusibilia.comWhat isthis?Seesurveymonkey.comWhat isthis? 10. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORYQUALITATIVERESEARCHResearch TheBasicConcepts inQualitative ResearchParadigmsIntroduction Thequalitative approachtoconducting researchhasformany years been totheBasic thesoftarea ofscience.Concepts Thequalitative aspects dealsalso with observable facts,butnotalways the samehard,measurable emperical factsthat isthefocus forquantitative research. Qualitative reseach investigates theconcept ofmeaning,its embedding inandorientation ofsocialactions.Itistheconnection between meaning and actionforexample asperformed inside mediacontextsthat tells us how we are,how we think andact inarealistic context. 11. RESEARCHMETHODSANDTHEORY QUALITATIVERESEARCH QualitativeExamples:Designing Qualitative Research:InterviewsResearchIntroductionTodesignanemperical study istoidentify anddelimit aportionofreality totheBasic (Jensen2005:237).Askinto why instead ofwhat.ConceptsRespondentinterviews:Theinformantispercieved asarepresentative ofasocialandcultural category.Thiscan be akey tothedecoding oftheuserpatterninrelationtouser behaviour (think aloud testforexample).Groupinterviews:Inorder toexplore what goes oninamoreorlessnaturalistic socialsetting,agroup can formthebasisfordiscussions,thatexplore aspects ofaproduct credibity,oflifestyles,advertisements etc.Focusgroups:Gathering aspecific typeofusers,this kindofinterviewing isoften based onthestrategy ofgetting toknow attitudes toward aproduct orpolitical andethical issues.Again,its why instead ofwhat. 12. RESEARCHMETHODSANDTHEORY QualitativeDesigning forResearchResearchIntroduction totheBasic AssignmentConceptsSeehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_focus_groupWhat isthis?What are thepros andcons inonlineandofflinequalitative surveys?Isathink aloud testaqualitative oraquantitative survey method?Orcan itbe both?Why? 13. RESEARCHPART2RESEARCHPARADIGMS:VariablesandConcepts 14. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY ResearchVariables Variables andConceptsThebasic partoftheresearchprocess isthenotion of the variable. Variablesare inthis context theemperical representation ofaconcept. Man,woman,number of,high/low,happy,nothappy etc. Variablesprovideoperational measuresthat can be quantified andmanipulated byresearchers. Theconcepts ofgender,age,economics,andpersonal behaviour are variablesthat you can measure.These variablesmustbe described in further detail asconcepts and/orconstructs (see thenext slides) 15. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY ResearchVariablesandConcepts Variables andConceptsAconcept represents anabstractidea that embodies thenatureof observable phenomenon,oraninterpretationofwhy such phenomea occur. Forexample,individuals may be differentiated intermsoftheir use of media:What you define asaactive usercould be distinguished fromwhat you define asapassiveuser(inquestions based onhow often aspecific mediaoranapplication isused). Mediausage can be linked toexplain different behavioual patterns: Mediausage becomes anexplanatory concept (Jensen2005:210). 16. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY ResearchSingleConcept Example (MediaUsageasBehavioural Patterns) Variables andConceptsTheobservable phenomenon: Moreandmorepeople overtheageof65use FaceBook (FB). source/desk research: http://www.insidefacebook.com/2009/12/11/facebookatopdestinationforusersover65/ Theconcept Iwant touse: What isittobe userits abittoo vague aconcept!Justbecause you havea FBaccount youre notalways active.Ifinditinteresting toinvestigate the singleconcept oftheactive userintheagegroup 65+. First,Idefine theconcept ofauserbydescribing precisely what this implies inrelationtoskills intheuse ofFB.Second,Isuggest thenumber ofvisitson FBperday inorder forone tobe aactive userofFB. Objective:Howmany active usersintheagegroup 65+are there onFBin Denmarkalone.Ibasethis onmy concept,my problemstatementandona samplingofinformants(say,1000FBusers intheagegroup 65+) 17. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY ResearchConstructs (Combined Concept Example) Variables andConceptsAconstruct comprises acombination ofconcepts.(Constructs) This termcan be used asaway ofdefining characteristics or actions ofindividuals that are associated with their personalitytype. Forexample,one personalitytypeisdefined asarangeofsensation seeking individuals:Highsensationseekers generallyneed higher levels of environmental stimulationthan lowsensationseekers. Highsensationseekers may be described byaseriesofother concepts as: sociability,toleranceforstrong stimulation,risktaking etc. Constructs haveadimensionalquality,sothat individuals may be classified (inthis example)ashigh or low on thepersonalitydimension ofsensationseeking (Jensen2005:210). 18. RESEARCH METHODSANDTHEORY ResearchVariables,Concepts andConstructs:Example Variables andConceptsInother words:Thevariablesget moresubstantial when they are applied(Constructs) toa)aconcept andb)aconstruct. Example:Gender isinteresting because oftheconstruct ofthedifferences between certain actionsofm

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