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    POJMOVNIK FONDOVA EUROPSKE UNIJE

    GLOSSARY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FUNDS

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    Nakladnik:Sredinji dravni ured za razvojnu strategiju

    i koordinaciju fondova EU

    Urednici:mr.sc. Martina Dali

    Nataa MikuDavor ili

    Ivana Maleti

    CIP zapis dostupan u raunalnom katalogu Nacionalnei sveuiline knjinice u Zagrebu pod brojem 637598.

    ISBN 978-953-7443-02-3

    Tisak:

    A. G. Mato d.d. Samobor

    Naklada:3.000

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    Uvodna rije

    Proces pristupanja u lanstvo Europske unije postavlja pred Hrvatsku izazovprilagodbe zajednikoj pravnoj steevini, ali otvara i mogunost koritenjafinancijskih sredstava iz prorauna Europske unije. Pretpristupna pomokoju Europska unija osigurava u razdoblju pristupanja, kroz pretpristupnefondove i novi instrument pretpristupne pomoi IPA, ima za cilj pomoiHrvatskoj u pripremama za lanstvo ukljuujui i pripreme za uspjenokoritenje financijskih instrumenata namijenjenih zemljama lanicama.Stupanjem u lanstvo Hrvatska e postati korisnica strukturnih fondova,Kohezijskog fonda, sudjelovati u zajednikoj poljoprivrednoj politici i koristitisve druge financijske instrumente dostupne zemljama lanicama. Drugim

    rijeima, stupanjem u punopravno lanstvo Hrvatskoj e se otvoriti izvorifinanciranja koji e poduprijeti nae razvojne ciljeve i ubrzati rast i razvojhrvatskog gospodarstva i drutva u cjelini.

    Jedna od pretpostavki uspjenog i djelotvornog koritenja europskih fondovaje i uinkovito usvajanje znanja o postupcima i pravilima upravljanja novcemiz europskog prorauna, a razdoblje pristupanja vrijeme intenzivnog stjecanjaovih znanja. To je vrijeme potrebno to bolje iskoristiti emu e zasigurnopridonijeti i Pojmovnik fondova Europske unijekoji se nalazi pred nama.

    Pojmovnik fondova Europske Unije daje pregled i objanjenje znaenja

    mnogobrojnih pojmova ije je poznavanje nuno za snalaenje u svijetueuropskih fondova. Dodatno Pojmovnik objanjava i specifina rjeenjakoja je Hrvatska primijenila u dosadanjem procesu izgradnje sustava zaupravljanje europskim fondovima. U tom je smislu temeljni cilj Pojmovnikaolakati i ubrzati rad onih koji provode ili se pripremaju provoditi projektesufinancirane iz europskih fondova.

    Vjerujem da e Pojmovnikpridonijeti pribliavanju problematike europskihfondova i hrvatskim graanima jer graani su krajnji korisnici europskihfondova. Stupanjem u lanstvo Europske Unije, Hrvatska ulazi u drutvodrava koje su odluile zajedniki djelovati na smanjivanju razlika u ivotnomstandardu graana Europske unije. Instrument tog djelovanja jesu i fondovi okojima je rije u ovom Pojmovniku. Njegovim objavljivanjem elimo pridonijetiboljem razumijevanju, a to znai i boljem koritenju europskih fondova.

    dr. sc. Ivo SanaderPredsjednik Vlade Republike Hrvatske

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    Foreword

    The process of accession to the European Union places ahead of Croatia the

    challenge of alignment with the acquis communaitaire, but it also provides theopportunity of using the European Union financial resources. The assistancewhich the European Union provides in the pre-accession period, including thenew Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA), is designed to supportCroatia in its preparations for membership and for successful absorption ofthe financial instruments available to the EU member states. On accession,Croatia will become a beneficiary of the Structural Funds and the CohesionFund, it will participate in the Common Agricultural Policy and use all theother financial instruments available to member states. In other words, as afully-fledged member, Croatia will have access to financial resources which

    will support its development goals and speed up the development of theCroatian economy and society as a whole.

    One of the preconditions for a successful and efficient use of the Europeanfunds is acquisition of knowledge about procedures and rules that regulatethe management of EU budgetary resources. Pre-accession period is thetime during which these skills are acquired in an intensive manner. It isessential to use this time in the best possible way, and the Glossary of EUFundsshould certainly contribute to that goal.

    The Glossary of EU Fundsprovides an overview and explains the meaning of

    numerous concepts that one needs to be familiar with in order to understandthe European funds. In addition, the Glossary also describes specificmodels implemented in Croatia in the process of establishing the EU fundsmanagement system. In this respect, the main objective of the Glossaryis tofacilitate and speed up the work of those who implement or prepare for theimplementation of projects co-financed from the European resources.

    I believe that the Glossary of EU Fundswill contribute to the understandingof the topic by the Croatian people as the ultimate beneficiaries of thosefunds. By its accession to the European Union, Croatia will join the family

    of states which decided to jointly act with the aim of reducing disparities inthe living standard among the EU citizens. One of the instruments in thatprocess are the EU funds referred to in this Glossary. The publication of theGlossaryshould contribute to the better understanding and consequently tothe better absorption of the EU funds.

    Ivo Sanader

    Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia

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    Predgovor

    Zadovoljstvo mi je predstaviti Pojmovnik fondova Europske unijekoji nas najasan, jednostavan i sistematian nain uvodi u svijet pojmova iz podrujafondova Europske Unije. Pojmovi vezani za europske fondove esto sedoivljavaju kao skup neobinih, nerazumljivih i kompliciranih skraenica. Toi ne udi jer Hrvatska je tek s poetkom pregovora o punopravnom lanstvuu Europskoj uniji zakoraila u ovaj segment javnih financija. Meutim, upravos ciljem da pomogne u to brem savladavanju terminologije vezane uzeuropske fondove i openito sredstva iz europskog budeta Sredinji dravniured za razvojnu strategiju i koordinaciju fondova Europske unije sainio jeovaj Pojmovnik.

    Cilj je Pojmovnika stvoriti dodatan alat za laki i uinkovitiji rad svih onihkoji ve rade na koritenju pretpristupnih fondova, ali i omoguiti uvid u ovuterminologiju svima onima koji se tek ukljuuju u ove procese. Dodatnuvrijednost pojmovniku daje i njegova dvojezinost koja omoguuje itateljuda usporedi hrvatske prijevode i tumaenja pojedinih izraza s u praviluengleskim izvornikom.

    Iz sredstava pretpristupnih fondova CARDS, PHARE, ISPA i SAPARDHrvatska koristi 514 milijuna eura kojima se financiraju projekti namijenjeniizgradnji i jaanju sposobnosti za preuzimanje obveza punopravnog lanstva.

    Pripreme za koritenje novog instrumenta pretpristupne pomoi IPA, u okvirukojeg Hrvatskoj stoji na raspolaganju 589,9 milijuna eura do 2010, su upunom jeku. Iskustvo steeno u upravljanju pretpristupnim fondovima bit etemelj za upravljanje i koritenje Strukturnih fondova, Kohezijskog fonda istokao i za sudjelovanje u zajednikoj poljoprivrednoj politici nakon stupanjau lanstvo. Pred nama se stoga nalazi velik i izuzetno znaajan posao usavladavanju kojega e nam, uvjerena sam, pomoi i ovaj Pojmovnik.Koristim stoga priliku zahvaliti svim djelatnicima Ureda koji su svojim radomi trudom pridonijeli nastanku Pojmovnika.

    mr.sc. Martina Dalidravni tajnik

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    Preface

    It is my pleasure to present a Glossary of EU Funds, which introduces us to

    the concepts of EU funds management in a simple and systematic manner.The terms connected with the EU funds are often perceived as unusual,non-understandable and complex acronyms. This should not surprise usdue to the fact that only after the start of the EU accession negotiations,Croatia has entered into this segment of public finance. In this context, theCentral Office for Development Strategy and Coordination of EU Funds hasprepared a Glossary of EU Fundsin order to assist with better understandingof terminology connected with the EU funds and EU budget.

    The Glossaryrepresents a reference tool for easier and more efficient workof all those who are already engaged on pre-accession programmes, and it

    should enable better understanding to all those who are just embarking onthis process. An added value of this Glossaryis its bilingual character, whichenables the reader to compare various terms and explanations written inCroatian with their English originals.

    Croatia has benefited from 514 million euros of pre-accession programmesCARDS, PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD. Those programmes are used to financeprojects which support Croatia in institution building and reinforcing capacityfor assuming the EU membership obligations. Croatia also got access tothe new Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) with the allocation

    of 589.9 million euros in the period until 2010. Preparations to implementthis new financial instrument are in full progress. Experience and knowledgeacquired in the process of managing EU pre-accession funds will representan excellent basis for the management and implementation of StructuralFunds, Cohesion Fund and Common Agricultural Policy upon the accession.A big and significant task is ahead of us and I am sure that this Glossary ofEU Fundswill represent a very valuable tool in its accomplishment. I am alsousing this opportunity to thank all the CODEF employees whose determinationand effort made it possible to prepare the Glossary of EU Funds.

    Martina Dali

    State Secretary

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    Programi EU

    Postoje mnogobrojni programi koji se financiraju iz prorauna EU. Programi

    EU meusobno se uvelike razlikuju s obzirom na svoj karakter, podrujaintervencije, veliinu i nain provedbe. Definiraju se za viegodinjerazdoblje, a tijekom godina se nadograuju, spajaju, razdvajaju i ukidaju.Prijelaz iz prethodnog viegodinjeg financijskog okvira, tj. Financijskeperspektive EU za razdoblje 2000.-2006. godine, u aktualni financijskiokvir, tj. Financijsku perspektivu EU za razdoblje 2007.-2013. obiljeio jeopeniti trend konsolidiranja programskih aktivnosti EU. Trajanje programausklaivano je s trajanjem financijskih perspektiva te su aktivnosti grupiraneoko veih okvirnih programa. Rezultat ovog konsolidiranja je znaajnapromjena broja i sadraja programa EU. Projekti koji se financiraju iz

    dosadanjih programa jo su uvijek u provedbi, a sada zapoinje i provedbanovih programa. Stoga je teko dati stabilnu sliku postojeih programa. Kakobi se olakalo razumijevanje, mogue je postaviti sljedeu pojednostavljenuokvirnu podjelu:

    Programi za drave lanice

    Programi Zajednice

    Instrumenti kohezijske, poljoprivredne i ribarske politike

    Programi za drave nelanice (programi pomoi i suradnje s EU) - npr.pretpristupni programi

    Drave lanice EU na raspolaganju imaju znatna proraunska sredstva ito kroz programe Zajednice te kroz instrumente kohezijske, poljoprivrednei ribarske politike. Programi Zajednice su instrumenti kojima se potiesuradnja izmeu drava lanica EU na podrujima pojedinih politika. Naprimjer, program LIFE omoguava suradnju na podruju zatite okolia.Integrirani program cjeloivotnog obrazovanja (ILLP) omoguava razmjenuiskustava na podruju obrazovanja i osposobljavanja te osigurava stipendijeza ueniku i studentsku razmjenu. Program Mladi u akciji omoguujeneformalno obrazovanje i suradnju mladih u Europi. Marco Polo II je program

    namijenjen podruju prometa, tj. prometnim projektima s europskomdimenzijom usmjerenim prema razvoju multimodalnog prometa. 7. okvirniprogram za istraivanje i razvoj svojim imenom odaje podruje suradnje kojufinancira.

    Za razliku od programa Zajednice koji potiu europsku suradnju, instrumentikohezijske, poljoprivredne i ribarske politike sredstvima iz prorauna EUfinanciraju nacionalne programe koje definiraju drave lanice, a odobravaEuropska komisija. Ovi su instrumenti u Financijskoj perspektivi 2000.-2006.bili poznati pod zbirnim imenom strukturni fondovi, a ukljuivali su fondove

    za regionalni razvoj (ERDF), socijalnu politiku (ESF), poljoprivrednu politiku

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    (EAGGF) i ribarsku politiku (FIFG). Uz strukturne fondove na podrujuregionalne politike postoji i Kohezijski fond za velike projekte na podrujuzatite okolia i prometa. Dimenziju europske suradnje pokrivale su inicijativeZajednice koje su se takoer financirale iz tih fondova, i to INTERREG III za

    prekograninu, transnacionalnu i meuregionalnu suradnju, LEADER+ zaruralni razvoj kroz inovativne projekte, URBAN II za pomo urbanim sredinamas potekoama i EQUAL za borbu protiv nejednakosti i diskriminacije na triturada. U Financijskoj perspektivi 2007.-2013. zbirna oznaka strukturni fondovivie ne oznaava sve fondove, nego se upotrebljava samo za Europski fondza regionalni razvoj (ERDF) i Europski socijalni fond (ESF), koji zajedno sKohezijskim fondom ine instrumentekohezijske politike. Umjesto prijanjegjednog, poljoprivredna politika sada ima dva fonda, Europski poljoprivrednifond za ruralni razvoj (EAFRD) i Europski poljoprivredni fond za garancije(EAGF). Za ribarsku je politiku takoer definiran novi instrument, Europskiribarski fond (EFF). Kada se eli govoriti o svim fondovima, upotrebljavase naziv instrumenti kohezijske, poljoprivredne i ribarske politike. InicijativeZajednice vie ne postoje kao zasebni instrumenti nego su uklopljene uglavne programe koji se financiraju iz fondova.

    Programi za drave nelanice spadaju pod proraunsko poglavlje EU kaoglobalni partner, a zapravo se radi o programima pomoi i suradnje. Ti suprogrami strukturirani geografski tako da je, npr. Program za susjedstvo(ENPI) namijenjen dravama koje granie s EU, a nemaju perspektivulanstva. U Financijskoj perspektivi 2000-2006. meu geografske programe

    ubrajao se i program CARDS, namijenjen zemljama jugoistone Europe.U ovu skupinu spada i podskupina pretpristupnih programa namijenjenihzemljama s perspektivom lanstva. U Financijskoj perspektivi 2000.-2006. to su bili programi PHARE, ISPA i SAPARD. Pretpristupna pomosastojala se od tehnike pomoi za jaanje institucija kroz program PHARE(komponenta jaanja institucija ukljuujui twinning i TAIEX), pripremeza instrumente kohezijske politike kroz programe PHARE (komponentaekonomske i socijalne kohezije) i ISPA na podruju zatite okolia i prometa,te pripreme za instrumente poljoprivredne i ribarske politike kroz programSAPARD. Pretpristupna je pomo takoer ukljuivala i pristup programimaZajednice uz uplatu doprinosa za sudjelovanje zemalja kandidatkinja zalanstvo. Dosadanje pretpristupne programe i njihovu svrhu u Financijskojperspektivi 2007.-2013. zamjenjuje jedinstveni instrumenti pretpristupnepomoi pod nazivom IPA.

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    Tablica: Pregled programa EU1 u financijskim perspektivama 2000.-2006. i2007.-2013.

    Kako su se razvijali njeni odnosi s EU, tako su se mijenjali i programiijom je korisnicom Hrvatska bila. Od poetka 90-tih do 1995. Hrvatskaje koristila iskljuivo humanitarnu pomo, da bi od 1996. do 2000. godinebila korisnicom programa OBNOVA, prvog programa EU koji je hrvatskiminstitucijama pruio tehniku pomo za proces europskih integracija. Ta sepomo nastavila kroz program CARDS koji je Hrvatska koristila u razdobljuod 2001. do 2004.2 Nakon stjecanja statusa zemlje kandidatkinje za lanstvou EU, Hrvatskoj se 2005. godine otvaraju tri pretpristupna programa: Phare,ISPA i SAPARD, koji su joj dostupni tijekom dvije proraunske godine 2005.i 2006. Uspostavom novog pretpristupnog instrumenta, programa IPA,Hrvatska 2007. godine postaje njegovom korisnicom, to e i ostati do danapristupanja EU.

    1 Pregled programa Zajednice nije iscrpan, nego su samo navedeni primjeri programa i njihove konsolidacijeu Financijskoj perspektivi 2007.-2013.2 Ovo razdoblje odnosi se na nacionalnu komponentu programa CARDS. Regionalna komponenta programabila je dostupna u cijelom razdoblju trajanja programa (2001.-2006.).

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    Sredstva programa EU alocirana Hrvatskoj u razdoblju od 2000. do 2010. godine

    Kroz program IPA Hrvatskoj se prua pomo u pripremi za koritenjeinstrumenata kohezijske, poljoprivredne i ribarske politike, koje e moikoristiti nakon to postane lanicom EU. U procesu pripreme za lanstvo u

    EU, Hrvatska takoer postupno ulazi i u razliite programe Zajednice. U 2006.godini Hrvatska je punopravno sudjelovala u osam programa Zajednice:estom okvirnom programu za istraivanje i razvoj, Mjerama Zajednice napodruju zapoljavanja, Inteligentnoj energiji u Europi, Jednakosti spolova,Marcu Polu, Fiscalisu, Carinama i programu IDAbc. Do datuma pristupanja uEU, Hrvatska e postupno ulaziti i u druge programe Zajednice.

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    Prikaz pripreme Hrvatske za koritenje instrumenata kohezijske, poljoprivredne

    i ribarske politike EU

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    Europska komisija od 1993. godine koristi i dorauje svoju metodologijuupravljanja projektnim ciklusom (UPC - Project Cycle Management - PCM).Najnoviji prirunik o ovoj metodologiji izdala je 2004. godine pod nazivomSmjernice za upravljanje projektnim ciklusom (Project Cycle ManagementGuidelines). Cilj je UPC-a poboljati upravljanje programima i projektimasvih vrsta.UPC se ponekad naziva i integriranim pristupom s obzirom da predstavljazbir nekoliko relativno jednostavnih koncepata i tehnika, koje ukljuujukoncept projektnog ciklusa kroz viegodinje planiranje, definiranje projekatapo naelima logike matrice te koherentnu strukturu za kljune projektnedokumente i procedure.Projektni ciklus slijedi tijek projekta od poetne ideje sve do njezineprovedbe. On daje okvir koji osigurava konzultacije sa svim dionicima tedefinira kljune odluke, zahtjeve za informacijama i odgovornosti, kako bi usvakoj fazi projekta bilo mogue donijeti odgovarajue odluke. Projektni seciklus sastoji od pet faza koje logiki proizlaze jedna iz druge: programiranja,identificiranja, formuliranja, provedbe i evaluacije.

    Upravljanje projektnim ciklusom

    U fazi programiranja odreuju se prioritetna podruja i smjernice zafinanciranje projekata te definiraju viegodinji programski dokumenti. Usljedeoj se fazi identificiraju projektne ideje koje su u skladu s definiranimprioritetima te se izrauju prijedlozi projekata pri emu se procjenjujerelevantnost i izvedivost projekata, a poetno se razrauju ciljevi, rezultati iaktivnosti. U fazi formuliranja priprema se detaljna projektna dokumentacija

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    ukljuujui natjeajnu dokumentaciju te se uspostavljaju sustavi upravljanjai koordinacije, definira financijski plan, analiziraju trokovi i koristi, teuspostavljaju sustavi upravljanja rizicima, nadzora, evaluacije i revizije. Osimtoga, u ovoj se fazi odobrava financiranje identificiranog paketa projekata

    ili pojedinanog projekta pa se stoga pripremaju za to potrebni dokumentikao to su prijedlozi za financiranje i sporazumi o financiranju. Po zavretkuprocesa odobravanja financiranja, pristupa se natjeajnoj proceduri. Tadaslijedi faza same provedbe projekata, tijekom koje se takoer prati napredakprojekta u odnosu na zacrtane ciljeve. Za vrijeme provedbe i nakon njeprovodi se evaluacija uspjenosti i uinkovitosti aktivnosti poduzetih naprojektu. Rezultati evaluacije, posebice evaluacije apsorpcijske sposobnostizemlje primateljice, uzimaju se u obzir pri programiranju sredstava zasljedee razdoblje.

    Logika je matrica niz povezanih koncepata koji na operativan nain opisujunajvanije aspekte projekta. Ona daje mogunost provjere da li je projektdobro planiran te olakava praenje i evaluaciju projekta. Logika matrica je sadri pregledan saetak projektnih aktivnosti. Ona na sustavan nainodraava vertikalnu logiku projekta: od opih ciljeva kojima bi projekt trebaopridonijeti i konkretnog cilja projekta, do oekivanih rezultata i aktivnostikojima se ti rezultati trebaju postii. Osim to se uspostavlja logiki okvirizmeu ciljeva, svrhe, aktivnosti i rezultata projekta, matrica sustavno biljeii oekivane pokazatelje uspjeha te naine njihove provjere, odnosno izvore ukojima se nalaze relevantni podaci. Takoer navodi vanjske faktore, odnosnopretpostavke, koje utjeu na uspjeh projekta, ali nisu pod izravnom kontrolom

    provedbenih struktura. Pokazatelji i pretpostavke sastavni su dio horizontalnelogike projekta. Konano, materijalni i financijski resursi potrebni za pojedineaktivnosti opisuju se u posljednjem retku matrice u poljima sredstva i trokovi,a preduvjeti za poetak projekta navode se u posebnom polju.

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    Institucionalni okvir za uspostavu i provedbu programa EU

    Programi EU uspostavljaju se i provode kroz vrlo sofisticirani sustav sastavljen

    od razliitih institucija EU i drave korisnice.ivotni ciklus programa zapoinje njegovom pravnom uspostavom koju iniciraEuropska komisija, a ovisno o proceduri pravnu osnovu donosi samo Vijee iliVijee i Europski parlament. Pravna osnova, tj. odluka ili uredba o pokretanjuprograma, osim to odreuje visinu prorauna te ciljeve i aktivnosti programa,takoer odreuje i nain na koji se program provodi, tj. institucije koje suukljuene u njegovu provedbu. Budui da se na drave nelanice pravnasteevina EU, pa tako ni pravna osnova za pojedine programe, ne moeizravno primjenjivati, s njima se potpisuju posebni meunarodni sporazumi

    (okvirni sporazumi, sporazumi/memorandumi o financiranju, memorandumio suglasnosti), koji reguliraju dodjelu sredstava i njihovo koritenje sukladnozakonodavstvu EU i zakonodavstvu drave korisnice.

    S obzirom da je Europska komisija izvrna institucija EU, openito je unjezinoj nadlenosti i provedba programa. Komisiji pritom pomau razliitiupravni odbori sastavljeni od predstavnika drava lanica. Ta je procedurapoznata pod nazivom odborska procedura. Odbori provjeravaju odgovarali program dugoronim stratekim smjernicama te provodi li se program uskladu s naelima solidnog financijskog upravljanja.

    Meutim, sukladno Financijskoj uredbi kojom se odreuje nain provedbeprorauna EU, Komisija nadlenost za provedbu programa moe podijeliti srazliitim instancama na vie naina (podijeljeno upravljanje, decentraliziranoupravljanje ili zajedniko upravljanje s meunarodnim organizacijama).Pritom Komisija ipak u konanici ostaje odgovorna za provedbu.

    Operacionalizacija programa EU moe se podijeliti u sljedee glavne faze:programiranje (definiranje stratekih i operativnih dokumenata, identificiranjei formuliranje projekata), provedba (raspisivanje natjeaja, ugovaranje,plaanje, tehnika provedba projekata), revizija, nadzor i evaluacija.

    Prilikom operacionalizacije programa primjenjuje se naelo razdvajanjaodgovornosti, kojim se osigurava da odgovornosti za pojedine osjetljiveposlove ne budu u rukama istih ljudi. Cilj je ovakve prakse postizanjetransparentnosti i ispravnog izvrenja zadaa. Tako se, na primjer, inzistirana odvajanju odgovornosti za programiranje od odgovornosti za raspisivanjenatjeaja i ugovaranje.

    Kad se odgovornosti za razliite faze operacionalizacije programa podijeleprema naelima razliitih naina upravljanja, rezultat su razliite i kompleksnevarijante provedbenih sustava.

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    U kontekstu pretpristupnih programa, Komisija prebacuje dio provedbenihodgovornosti na dravu korisnicu (decentralizirano upravljanje).Odluku o prijenosu ovlasti potpisuje dunosnik za ovjeravanje. Sustaviupravljanja i kontrole u dravi korisnici sastoje se od sljedeih instanci: na

    nacionalnoj razini svim su programima zajedniki nacionalni koordinatorpomoi s koordinacijskim tijelom te nacionalni dunosnik za ovjeravanjes nacionalnim fondom; nacionalni koordinator pomoi zaduen jeza koordinaciju pripreme i praenja provedbe programa;. nacionalnidunosnik za ovjeravanje preuzima cjelokupnu financijsku odgovornostza provedbu programa. Operativna struktura (sredinja jedinica zafinanciranje i ugovaranje te jedinice za provedbu projekata ili upravno tijeloi provedbene agencije te certifikacijska tijela) i revizijsko tijelo razlikujuse od programa do programa. Operativna struktura odgovorna je zaprovedbu projekata unutar programa, a unutar nje je potrebno uspostavitisustav upravljanja i kontrole te unutarnje revizije, koji ima savjetodavnuulogu u svrhu poboljanja sustava. Osim unutarnjoj reviziji, provedbaprograma podlijee i vanjskoj reviziji, koju provode nadlena institucijazemlje korisnice, revizori Europske komisije, a u sluajevima kada postojiosnovana sumnja o nepravilnostima i pronevjeri, i Europski revizijskisud. Svaki program takoer ima i nadzorni odbor koji prati provedbute Europskoj komisiji i nadlenim provedbenim institucijama predlaeizmjene programa, bilo realokaciju sredstava ili izmjenu prioriteta.

    S obzirom da su pretpristupni programi namijenjeni treim dravama

    kao priprema za lanstvo, njihovi su sustavi upravljanja i kontrole spojprovedbenih struktura tipinih za programe koji se provode u treimzemljama i provedbenih struktura u dravama lanicama. Omjeri izmeuova dva naina provedbe variraju tako da je, npr. program PHAREnajsliniji programima za tree zemlje, a program SAPARD najslinijiprovedbi poljoprivrednih fondova za zemlje lanice. Razliite komponenteprograma IPA, zadravaju ove razlike.

    U kontekstu strukturnih fondova, Europska komisija i drave lanice dijeleodgovornost za provedbu (podijeljeno upravljanje), koje podrazumijeva

    potpunu samostalnost provedbe u dravi lanici, uz periodike naknadne(ex-post) kontrole od strane Komisije. Provedbene strukture u dravamalanicama ukljuuju upravljako tijelo i certifikacijsko tijelo, ukljuujuiposrednika tijela koja mogu preuzeti neke od njihovih funkcija te revizijskotijelo.

    U kontekstu programa Zajednice, Komisija uglavnom zadrava nadlenostiza programe te ih provodi centralizirano sama ili preko vlastitih izvrnihagencija (npr. 6. okvirni program za istraivanje i razvoj Komisija provodisama, a program Inteligentna energija u Europi provodi KomisijinaIzvrna agencija za inteligentnu energiju. Meutim, neki od programa

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    Zajednice, npr. programi na podruju obrazovanja, provode se i putemtzv. indirektnog centraliziranog upravljanja, pri emu Europska komisijaakreditira provedbene agencije na nacionalnoj razini.

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    Pregled pravne i strateke osnove za programe EU

    Za provedbu programa EU potreban je niz pravnih, stratekih, operativnih

    i provedbenih dokumenata, koji definiraju s jedne strane iznose sredstavai prioritete, odnosno mjere koje se financiraju, a s druge strane pravilaprovoenja i provedbene sustave. Institucije EU kroz svoje zakonodavstvoodreuju osnovne postavke za sve navedeno. Budui da pravni akti EUnisu izravno primjenjivi u zemljama nelanicama, njih je potrebno krozmeunarodne ugovore prebaciti u ingerenciju zemlje korisnice, nakon egai zemlja korisnica dio pitanja ureuje svojim vlastitim propisima. Neki su odtih dokumenata openiti i odnose se na vie programa, a drugi su specifiniza pojedini program.

    Provedbeni okvir temelji se na Financijskoj uredbi EU koja ureuje nain

    funkcioniranja prorauna EU te strukture za njegovu provedbu i kao takvapredstavlja pravnu osnovu i za uspostavu provedbenih sustava programaEU. Njezine odredbe, koje se odnose na provedbeni sustav za pretpristupneprograme, razraene su u Memorandumu o uspostavi Nacionalnog fonda,koji Europska komisija potpisuje s dravnom korisnicom programa.

    Sadrajni okvir zadan od EU, bilo iri politiki (npr. okvir politike proirenjaEU za pretpristupne programe), bilo programski za pojedine politike EU (npr.politiku zatite okolia), prenosi se u sadraj programa za pojedinu zemljukorisnicu, pri emu se u obzir uzimaju i njezine strateke smjernice i razvojni

    dokumenti. Sadraj programa razrauje se u razliitim dokumentima od kojihsu neki stratekog karaktera (opis dugoronih/viegodinjih prioriteta), a drugiprovedbenog karaktera (opis mjera i projekata). Ovi drugi mogu biti pravnoobvezujui, kao to su sporazumi o financiranju, ili tehniki dokumenti, kaoto su prijedlozi projekata.

    Osim sadrajnih dokumenata, izrauju se i razliiti operativni i provedbenidokumenti. Operativni se dokumenti odnose na detaljne opise sustavaprovedbe, uloge pojedinih institucija te procedura, npr. svi prirunici kojidjelatnicima daju upute o konkretnim koracima u procesu provedbe programa.

    Provedbeni dokumenti su oni na temelju kojih se provode natjeaji i pozivina dostavu prijedloga projekata, tj. natjeajna dokumentacija (opisi posla zausluge, tehnike specifikacije za robu i trokovnici za radove te obrasci zaprijavu projekata u sluaju dodjele bespovratnih sredstava) i sve pripadajueupute.

    Svi se navedeni dokumenti po svojem obliku i odreenim detaljima razlikujuod programa do programa, ali je logika i za njih uvijek ista: viegodinjestrateko planiranje i transparentna provedba prema standardiziranimpravilima.

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    U sljedeim je tablicama naznaen pregled postojeih pravnih, stratekih,operativnih i provedbenih dokumenata koji se odnose na programe koji suEU trenutno u provedbi u Hrvatskoj.

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    3Sporazumo

    financiranjuza2005.g

    odinuNN-MU

    8/2006,Sporazumo

    fin

    anciranjuza2006.godinuNN-MU4/2007

    4Memorandumo

    financiranjuprojektatehnikepomoiNN-MU

    9/2006,Me

    morandumo

    financiranjuprojektarehabilitacijeeljezniceNN-MU5/2005,

    Memorandumo

    financiranjuprojektavodozatiteMU

    5/2006

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    Bibliografija

    Aid Delivery Methods, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, Volume

    1, European Commission, EuropeAid Cooperation Office, March 2004 Practical Guide to Contract Procedures Financed for EC ExternalActions, European Commission, EuropeAid Cooperation Office, 2006HYPERLINK http://ec.europa.eu/comm/europeaid/tender/practical_guide_2006/documents/new_prag_en_final.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/comm/europeaid/tender/practical_guide_2006/documents/new_prag_en_final.pdf

    Pravna osnova programa

    Glosari

    Europa Glossary - HYPERLINK http://www.europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm http://www.europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/index_en.htm

    Projektna terminologija Europske komisije, Ope uprave zaproirenje - HYPERLINK http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/financial_assistance/phare/glossary_en.htm http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/financial_assistance/phare/glossary_en.htm

    Projektna terminologija Europske komisije, Ope uprave zaregionalnu politiku, HYPERLINK http://www.ec.europa.eu/regional_

    policy/glossary/glossary_en.htm http://www.ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/glossary/glossary_en.htm

    Projektna terminologija Europske komisije, Ope uprave zazapoljavanje, socijalna pitanja i jednake mogunosti, HYPERLINKhttp://www.ec.europa.eu/employment_social/esf2000/glossary_en.html http://www.ec.europa.eu/employment_social/esf2000/glossary_en.html

    Terminologija Europske komisije, Ope uprave za poljoprivredui ruralni razvitak, HYPERLINK http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/

    glossary/glossary_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/glossary/glossary_en.pdf

    Terminologija Europske agencije za okoli,

    Irish Guide to Funding under the National Development Plan andCommunity Support Framework 2000-2006 HYPERLINK http://www.ndp.ie/viewdoc.asp?mn=pubo&nID=1&UserLang=EN&StartDate=1+January+2006&fn=/documents/publications/ndp_csf_docs/complete.htm http://www.ndp.ie/viewdoc.asp?mn=pubo&nID=1&UserLang=EN&StartDate=1+January+2006&fn=/documents/publications/

    ndp_csf_docs/complete.htm

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