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HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BY DR. NIK MAHERAN NIK MUHAMMAD BY DR. NIK MAHERAN NIK MUHAMMAD

HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BY DR. NIK MAHERAN NIK MUHAMMAD

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  • HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

    BY DR. NIK MAHERAN NIK MUHAMMAD

  • THE FORMATCHAPTER 1IntroductionBackground of the studyProblem statementObjective of the studyResearch questionsDefinition of TermsSignificant of the studyConclusion

  • CHAPTER 1IntroductionExplain the focus of the study (your dependent variables)

    How it relates to your other factors/variables (independent variables, moderating variables or mediating variables)

    Explain the overall purpose/objective of the study

  • Background of the studyWork setting environment

    Previous related study based on the literature review you have conducted.That relates on all the variables connected to your study even though not being studied.

    If you focus on specific company Background of the company

  • Problem statementWhy this research is needed.What are the problem that need to be solved?What are the questions that need to be answered?

    Problem can be identified based on 2 perspective:Practical perspectiveTheoretical perspectiveGap IdentificationArea that is not yet studiedVariables that is not yet testedMethodology that has never being used

  • Objective of the studyWhat do u want to achieve at the end of the day.

    The objective must be: understandable logical

  • Research QuestionsRelated to the objectiveBut more specificdetail

  • Definition of Term

    Concise

    Only for the key terms: that is important to the studyCan be conceptualize differently in different context.

  • Significance of the studyTheoretical significantGap identificationContribution to the body of knowledge

    Practical significanceHow the study will help in improving work-setting environmentContribution to the practitioners.

  • Conclusion

    Summarize the purpose of the studyThe contribution of your studyWhy should you conduct this studyWhat is the different between your study with the previous one

  • CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW

    What are the previous study looked at in the similar area of yours

    Why yours is different from the previous one.

  • How to write literature reviewReview not summarize

    Important information in the literature reviewVariables used their findingsThe methodology used

  • How to write literature reviewStart from general to specificDiscuss on the general area of the studyE.g. finance, strategic management, accounting etc.

    Discuss on the related theory

    Specifically discuss on the specific variables used in the study

  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKBased on the literature review, theoretical framework can be formed.

    Explain what are:The construct;The concept;The dimension;The element; in your framework

  • HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENTYou cant just hypothesize based on your assumption

    It must be supported by a short preamble

    Your hypotheses must be justified. WHY???

  • CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Research designVariable and measurementQuestionnaire designPopulation and sampleData analysis methodConclusion

  • 1.Research DesignExploratory DescriptiveHypothesis testingCase study

  • Exploratory ResearchQualitative studyData are collected through observation, interviews, focus groupExplore new areas of organizational researchUndertaken when little is known about the situation preliminary informationE.g. Study on quality of life office romance Islamic financing

  • Descriptive Research

    To describe the characteristics of the variable of interest in the situation

    To learn about and describe the characteristics of a group of employees e.g age, educational level, job status, etc.

  • Hypotheses testingExplain the nature of certain relationships

    Establish the differences among groups

    Explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcomes

  • Case studyGathering in-depth information on a single entity

    Involve contextual analyses of similar situation in other organizations.

    Qualitative in nature

  • Type of investigationClarificationExploratory/descriptive studyCorrelationAt least two variables move simultaneouslyHypotheses testing methodCausalOne variable causes a movement in another variable

  • Time HorizonCross-sectional studiesData are gathered just onceA period of days, week, months

    Longitudinal studiesAcross over period of timeStudy individual or phenomena at more than one point in time.

  • Unit of analysisFocus of the study (dependent variable)The nature of information gatheredIndividualCompanyDyad two person interactionCountrySystemprocess

  • 2. Variables and measurementExplain the variablesDependentIndependentModeratorMediator

    How to measure those variables (how to operationalize)Based on primary data? QuestionnaireSecondary data?

  • 3. Questionnaire designAdapted?Adopted?Self constructed?How it is design? What are the measurement scaleNominal dataOrdinal data?Interval data?Likert-like scale

  • 4. Population and SamplePopulation entire group of people

    Sampling frame a listing of all the elements in the population

    Sample subset of the population

    Sample size

  • SamplingProcess of selecting number of elements from the populationProbability vs. non-probability samplingProbability:Simple random samplingStratified random samplingCluster sampling

    Non-probabilityConvenience samplingPurposive sampling

  • Data analysis methodStatistical tools used

    What are the analysis obtainedGoodness of dataInferential analysis

  • Goodness of DataRepresentativeness of the dataResponse rateNon-response biasValidityreliability

  • Inferential analysisDescriptive analysis

    Test of differences

    Correlation analysis

    Regression analysis

  • Findings presentation and InterpretationTable 4.13: Descriptive statistics of Independent VariablesNotes: X1 scale range: 1(not at all) to 5 (great amount)X2 scale range:1 (informal) to 5 (formal)X3 scale range: 1(impersonal) to 5 (personal)X4 scale range: 1(external) to 5 (internal)

    Decision N=118VariablesMeanStd. DeviationX1: Extent of scanning Technology Economic/financial Competition3.3693.3713.392.985.988.936X2: Method of scanning Technology Economic/financial Competition3.4133.4693.4051.046.848.752X3: Source of scanning (Personal/Impersonal) Technology Economic/financial Competition2.9132.9893.068.743.863.767X4: Source of scanning (External/Internal) Technology Economic/financial Competition2.8663.0472.867.779.917.747

  • Table 4.21: ANOVA results - Other variables (Decision Quality, IPC, Nature of Decision) by demographic profile

    DEMOGRAPHICDependent variableModerating variableControl variableDecision qualityIPCNature of DecisionF-valuep-valueF-valuep-valueF-valuep-valueRespondents profile: Position Education level Field of expertise Years in the industry Years in the current firm Years in current position.5382.992.445.681.619.108.585.054.642.565.604.8972.784.3802.453.584.9191.173.066.685.091.627.434.313.3902.827.0582.8571.932.156.678.063.943.040.128.855Companys profile: Type of industry Years in operation Size of companyNo. of employees Average revenue1.795.582.046.536.183.628.955.5871.4721.400.8981.402.227.247.410.2511.3602.655.0251.885.246.052.976.157Decisions profile: Type of decision Size of investment1.0971.013.354.3901.689.800.173.496.4572.097.713.105

  • Table 4.25: Model summary of multiple regression analysis***significant at the 0.01 level, ** significant at the 0.05 level, * significant at the 0.1 level

    Model 1(control variable)Model2(independent variables)Model3(moderating variable)Model4(Interaction variables)F value.0402.579***3.535***3.112***R square.000.258.343.506Adjusted R square-.010.158.246.343R square change.000.258.085.163F change.0402.809***11.401***2.086***