Text of Greco- Persian Wars Causes,Consequences, Results
Greco- Persian Wars Causes,Consequences, Results
The Persian War!
How Do We Know? Remember, history is what is remembered and written down, along with the bias of the writer. Herodotus - primary source Father of History Ionian Greek Eye-witness & interviewed Eye-witnesses Wrote The Persian Wars
How Do We Know? These are the inquiries (the Greek word is histories) of Herodotus of Halikarnassos, which he sets down so that he can preserve the memory of what these men have done, and ensure that the wondrous achievements of the Greeks and barbarians (the Persians) do not lose their deserved fame, and also to record why we went to war with each other. -Herodotus
Persian Empire Expands And the Persians? Conquered the Babylonians Freed the Jews and allowed them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple to Yahweh Cyrus the Great ---> Jews called him the Messiah or Gods anointed one Empire ---> largest to date under Darius, from Egypt, Asia Minor to India Satraps & Satrapies
Persian Empire Expands
People to know GREEKSPERSIANS -Leonidas-Cyrus the Great -Pericles -Darius* -Themistocles -Xerxes* Key Battles to Know (there s 4) B. of Marathon B. of Thermopylae B. of Salamis B. of Plataea Persian War - the Greeks vs. the Persians
The Persian War SO WHAT? Who cares? What s at stake? JUST THE FUTURE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION!
Background to the Conflict No Persian records. After collapse of Mycenaean civilization, many Greeks fled to Ionia. These Greek colonies were more or less united under Lydian rule. On the eve of the Greco-Persian wars, Ionian population had become discontented and rebellious Meanwhile in Athens, Cleisthenic democracy insecure. Fear of treason, tyranny, Spartans, and neighbors. So Cleisthenes asks for alliance with Persia. Persians ask for earth and water in return.
Ionia & the Ionian Greeks
Northern Greece - Thrace & Macedonia
SPARTA ATHENS * SARDIS
2nd Invasion - 490 B.C.
Cyrus II and the Foundation Between 550 and 530 BC Cyrus II, establishes a vast empire First he incorporates Media and Persia, then the Assyrian Empire, and then many lands on the east of Iran He establishes a rule based on local diversity, respects local religions and customs His son and heir Cambyses II conquered Egypt.
The Rise of Achaemenid Persia
Ionian Revolt, 499-493 Cyrus sent messages to the Ionians demanding revolt against Lydian rule. Ionians refused. Cyrus invadesPhocea 1 st. Ionian Greeks hard to rule. So Persia establishes a tyrant in each Ionian city. The tyranny declining in Greece. Darius the Great more invasive than Cyrus. Ionians captured, and burnt Sardis. On their return home, they were followed by Persian troops, and crushed at the Battle of Ephesus
Ionian Revolt, 499-493 Miletus rebels. Athens supports them with 20 ships. Persians defeat them at Battle of Lade (494) Besieged, captured, and enslaved Miletians. Why does Athens get involved? They are Ionians Persia has been unfriendly Athens dependent on trade (especially, grain trade) Glory Asia Minor returned to Persian control. But Darius vowed to punish Athens for supporting revolts In 492, Darius sent ambassadors to major Greek cities, demanding their submission. Does not go to Athens or Sparta.
Darius I (the housekeeper) Darius was a pretender, who prevailed after a bloody succession war. He expanded the empire to the East, and tried to incorporate Europe, including Greece His European campaigns were mostly a failure He organized the Empire, cut new coins (darics), and introduced new laws. His generals were defeated by the Athenians at Marathon.
Overall :First Invasion of Greece: Motivations Punish the rebels Restore Hippeas (he would be a Persian satrap) Conquer and tax Greece Control Athenian trade Glory
The Battle of Marathon (490 BC) The first Persian invasion primarily targeted Athens. Spartan help was asked and promised but delayed, due to religious observance. The Athenians alone defeated the invading force with the brilliant tactics of general Miltiades. When the Spartans arrived, they inspected the monument, praised the Athenians and left.
First Invasion of Greece: Battle of Marathon Persian fleet headed down coast of Attica, landing at bay of Marathon, 26 miles from Athens (Phydippedes runs to Athens to ask for help3hrs. Then died.) Sparta amidst a religious ceremony. Promised help later Herodotus records that 6,400 Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield; Athenians lost only 192 men. Spartans show up the next day! Significance Persians CAN be beaten Victory for democracy and freedom Pride and glory No victory at Marathon, no Socrates, Sophocles, Eurpides The Marathonomachai saved Western Civ (?) War accomplishes great things (?)
Rise of Themistocles General (strategos) of his tribe in 490 BCE; commanded center of Athenian army at Marathon Elected archon in 493/92 BCE Rival politicians ostracized: Miltiades, Hipparchus, Megacles the Alcmaeonid, Xanthippus (father of Pericles), Aristides
Rise of Themistocles: Athenian Navy Debate Debate in Athenian Assembly New wealth from Larium mines Aristides: strengthen hoplite army (zeugitai) Themistocles: strengthen navy (thetes) Build port of Piraeus Overture to Thetes Aristides ostracized in 482 BCE New political importance of thetes as rowers
Themistocles and Athenian Naval Power Before this, Themistocles judgment had proved the best at an important moment; it was when the commonality of Athens had received great sums that came to them from the mines at Laurium, and they were disposed to share them out, with each citizen getting ten drachmas apiece. It was then that Themistocles persuaded the Athenians to abandon this distribution and make instead, with this money, two hundred ships for the war, he said, naming the war against the Aeginetans. It was indeed their engagement in this war, just then, that saved Greece, for it compelled the Athenians to become men of the sea. These ships were not used for the purpose for which they were built, but they were there for Greece at the moment of need. -Herodotus, 7.144
Rise of Themistocles: Foresight Now the rest of his countrymen thought that the defeat of the barbarians at Marathon was the end of the war; but Themistocles thought it to be only the beginning of greater contests, and for these he anointed himself, as it were, to be the champion of all Greece, and put his polis into training, because, while it was yet far off, he expected the evil that was to come. - Plutarch, Life of Themistocles, 3.4
Athenian Trireme 120 ft. x 15 ft. 170 rowers Fast and agile Ramming tactics
Xerxes 486: Darius dies: Xerxes becomes king 484: Egypt revolts After the suppression of the revolt Xerxes prepares for a campaign against Greece. 480: Xerxes personally leads an invasion of Greece
Second Persian Invasion (480-479 BCE ) Xerxes constructs an armada a boat- bridge spanning Hellespont 481, Greek League (Hellenic League) Defensive Alliance 31 Greek states Led by Sparta and Athens
The Fictional Xerxes
The real Xerxes A sophisticated, fun- loving womanizer, better suited for the luxuries of the court than the battlefield. Xerxes inherited the Greek campaign from his father. During his reign, a new imperial capital was built, inteded to glorify Persian might
Persepolis: The Great Palace of Xerxes
The Invasion of Xerxes
The Battlefield of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae, 480 Xerxes's arrived during Olympic Games. For Spartans, warfare during Olympics was sacrilegious. But Spartans considered the threat so grave that they dispatched King Leonidas I with his personal bodyguards (The Hippeis) of 300 men + Allied forces. Persian contingents forced to attack Greek phalanx head on Pass at Thermopylae was opened to the Persian army according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20,000 fatalities Xerxes beheads and impales corpse of Leonidas!
The Battle of Thermopylae 480: Although strategically it was a hopeless undertaking, the stand of king Leonidas and his personal guard at Thermopylae, encourages