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GCSE Geography-Edexcel B

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    GCSE Geography-Edexcel B

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    Topic 1

    Population Dynamics

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    Key Words Birth Rate the number of births per 1000 people in a year

    Death Rate the number of deaths per 1000 people in a year

    Migration

    people changing their place of residence, within or between countries

    Natural Increase the difference between birth and death rate

    Natural Change the change (increase or decrease) in population numbers, from the differencebetween the birth and death rate

    Zero Population Growth when natural and migration change cancel each other out, no change isthe total population

    InfantMortality Rate The number of deaths in children (under 11) per 1000 live births a year

    Population Structure the composition of a population, in terms of age or gender

    Population Pyramid the diagram way of showing the age and sex of a population

    Ageing Population a population with a rising average age

    Youthful Population a population with a high percentage/population of people under 16

    Replacement Level the level of fertility where women are only having enough children to replacethemselves and their parents in the population

    Tipping Point the point where the momentum of change becomes unstoppable

    Population Policies measures taken by the government to influence population size, growth,distribution or composition

    Pro-Natalist Policies

    policies which encourage people to have more children

    Anti-Natalist Policiespolicies which encourage people to have fewer children

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    Demographic Transition Model

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    Population Pyramids

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    Examples of population structures

    Japan Ageing Population

    Birth rate is low

    Low death rate

    High life expectancy

    Developed country with people

    moving their to life a civilised life

    style in their old age

    People are living longer due to

    good heath care

    As a result taxes need to increase to

    pay for the services needed by theageing population

    Fewer workers in the economy

    Increase in high quality, reliable

    health care

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    Mexico Youthful population

    Birth rate is high

    Death rate is high

    Life expectancy is low

    Birth rate is falling but still a large percentage of young people are living longer

    Results in an increase in education sites

    Decrease in work

    Growth in economy

    Abortion legalised to lower percentage of abandoned children

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    Population policiesPro Natalist = SingaporeAnti Natalist = China (One child Policy)

    Singapore

    Policies introduces to encourage large families:

    Tax relief for parents

    Encourages large families so couples dont have to pay lots of tax

    Family allowance for the 1st and 4th children

    Encourages up to 4 children so they can gain extra money

    Cheaper mortgages for large families

    Large families can buy large properties with cheaper mortgages

    Longer maternity leave

    Women know that they can go back to their job in the same position as before and

    not have to worry about taking time off with their children

    Success:

    From previous mistakes they made themselves optimistic goals which could be achieved

    Living conditions improved

    Less infant mortality

    Birth rate increased resulting in the population increasing also

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    Migration

    Immigration a person arriving in a country/region to live for at least1 year

    Economic migrant a person who moves to find employment

    Host Country the country which an immigrant is now living in

    Migration the process of people changing their place of residence

    Voluntary migration when migrants have decided to movethemselves

    Forced migration when migrants have no choice but to movebecause of a natural disaster, war, violence and if they star theirlives are at risk

    Emigration a person leaving a country/region to live elsewhere forat least 1 year

    Source country the country from which an immigrant has movedfrom

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    Migration from Jamaica to the UK The UK encouraged people to migrate to the UK, the Open door policy, to fill up

    the shortages of workers in the UK after WWII

    Positive Negative

    Host Source Host Source

    Met shortages of

    unskilled workers

    Played important

    role in post war

    reconstruction

    Ethnic groups

    added to UKwork base

    Ethnic groups

    added to culture

    Increase in

    remittances

    Increase in

    economy due to

    remittances

    Poverty in

    Jamaica was cutby due to

    increase in

    economy

    Public money

    spent of meeting

    the immigrants

    needs

    Immigrants

    added to the

    burden of theeconomy when

    going into

    recession

    Social tensions

    created

    Segregation

    Loss of the best

    workers

    Women out

    numbering men,

    negative social

    impacts

    Birth rate waslow

    Elderly

    dependents

    increased

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    Eastern European countries coming to

    the UK

    Migration policy, skilled based system:

    Tier 1

    Highly skilled workers scientists/entrepreneurs

    Tier 2Skilled workers teachers/nurses

    Tier 3

    Low skilled workers-construction workers

    Tier 4

    Students

    Tier 5

    Youth mobility and temporary workers

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    Migration from: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, CzechRepublic, Hungary, Slovenia

    Brings both positive and negatives impacts to

    both source and host country e.g. loss of youthfulworkers (negative source country), EasternEuropean workers bring money into the UKseconomy (positive host country)

    Push factors Pull Factors

    Unemployment (move away to earn a

    living)

    Low wages (move away to earn a living )

    Ageing labour forcePoverty (move away because of bad living

    conditions )

    Poor quality of life

    Job vacancies (come to earn a living)

    Skill shortage (come as more jobs

    available)

    Higher wages (come to earn more money)

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    T

    opic 2

    Consuming resources

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    Key Terms

    Finite resource- a resource that is limited orrestricted. For example coal, oil and natural gas

    Black gold- another name for oil because it is

    such a valuable commodity Oil barrel- the standard unit of measurement of

    oil. One barrel =approx. 159 litres

    Ecological footprint- an estimated area of land

    and water that is needed to supply resources toan individual or a group of people

    Sustainable development- meeting needs of thepresent, without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs

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    Classifying resourcesResource How it might be useful Renewable/Non-renewable

    Tabaco For people who smoke Non-renewable

    Oil Heating homes, providing

    electricity, fuels for transport

    Non-renewable

    Bananas For feeding people and animals Non-renewable

    Water Generate electricity Renewable

    Tea For people to drink, Income for

    countries supplying it

    Non-renewable

    Coal Provides electricity and heating Non-renewable

    Mangos To feed people and bring in

    income

    Non-renewable

    Wind Generates heat and produces

    electricity

    Renewable

    Coco beans To feed people, to provide

    income for countries supplying it

    Non-renewable

    Solar power Generates electricity and heats

    water

    Renewable

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    Defining resources

    Natural resource Wood

    Human resource Skills of apopulation

    Material/Capital resource Goods/Equipment

    Non-renewable resource Coal

    Sustainable resource Plantingtrees

    Renewable resource Wind

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    Haves and have nots

    TheMiddle East, has the highest current oil

    production, but has reachedpeak oil(when oil

    reaches it maximum level and then declines)

    Different countries have different resources, and

    are not effected by a countries wealth or

    development

    Consumption however is down to the wealth of acountry e.g. American has less than 5% of the

    population, but uses 25% of the oil

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    OilSupply andDemand

    Supply:

    Saudi Arabia

    Kuwait

    Venezuela

    Demand:

    USA

    UK

    China

    India

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    Alternatives to oil Hydrogen:

    Cars which run on electricity produced by combiningwater and oxygen, reducing oil consumption

    Biofuels:

    Use plants and trees instead of using oil Alternate cars:

    Companies e.g. Ford releasing cars run on alternateenergy sources

    Wind power:Using r

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