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Edexcel GCSE Geography B - Pearson Education

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  • Edexcel GCSE Geography B Evolving Planet

    Teacher Guide Second Edition Cameron Dunn Wayne Eaves David Flint Lindsay Frost Steve Milner Simon Oakes Andy Palmer Alan Parkinson Sue Warn Michael Witherick Phil Wood Nigel Yates

  • Acknowledgements Published by Pearson Education Limited, a company incorporated in England and Wales, having its registered office at Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE. Registered company number: 872828 Edexcel is a registered trademark of Edexcel Limited Text Rob Bircher, Cameron Dunn, Wayne Eaves, David Flint, Lindsay Frost, Steve Milner, Simon Oakes, Andy Palmer, Alan Parkinson, Sue Warn, Michael Witherick, Phil Wood and Nigel Yates 2009, 2013 First published 2009 This edition published 2013 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 1 44690 629 3 Copyright notice All rights reserved. The material in this publication is copyright. Pupil sheets may be freely photocopied for classroom use in the purchasing institution. However, this material is copyright and under no circumstances may copies be offered for sale. If you wish to use the material in any way other than that specified you must apply in writing to the publishers. Printed Teacher Guide designed by Pantek Arts Ltd, Maidstone, Kent Illustrated by Oxford Designers and Illustrators Picture research by Louise Edgeworth and Chrissie Martin Photographs The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their photographs: (Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top) Alamy Images: All Canada Photos 129, Barry Vincent 86b, Clynt Garnham Industry 66l, FLPA 85, Graeme Peacock 86t, Leslie Garland Picture Library 82, NowRf 86c, Steffen Hauser / botanikfoto 66r; (c) Rough Guides: Jonathan Smith 179; Corbis: Alison Wright 175; Getty Images: AFP / Farjana K. Godhuly 239, Bloomberg 243, Stone / Joe McBride 160; National Geophysical Data Center: 20; Science Photo Library Ltd: NASA 70; University of Papua New Guinea: Remote Sensing Centre, Biology Dept., School of Natural and Physical Sciences 51; Veer/Corbis: ventdusud 128 All other images Pearson Education Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any subsequent edition of this publication. Text permissions We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Cartoons Cartoons on page 254 adapted from Ken Pyne cartoons, Daily Mail, February 1997 Figures Figure on page 35 from New graph of global temperature projections, U.S. Global Change Research Program (www.globalchange.gov); Figure on page 36 from Methane emissions chart: David Etheridge (CSIRO) Comparison of atmospheric methane concentrations in air from Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Methane concentrations in the atmosphere over the past 1000 years from measurement of air in polar ice. David Etheridge, CSIRO Marine and

  • Atmospheric Research (Etheridge et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 1998, American Geophysical Union). and Methane concentrations in the atmosphere over the past 1000 years from measurement of air in polar ice. David Etheridge, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (Etheridge et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 1998, American Geophysical Union).; Figure on page 112 from http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBytes%20GCSE%20Blog%20Resources/Images/Rivers/ox-bow_lake.gif, Rob Chambers from GeoBytes GCSE; Figure on page 86 from COAST - Community of Arran Seabed http://www.arrancoast.com/Archives/june09.html, COAST Community of Arran Seabed Trust; Figure on page 160 fromhttp://sd.defra.gov.uk/what/principles/, Crown copyright 2012; Figure on page 163 from http://epi.yale.edu/dataexplorer/countryprofiles, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy (YCELP) and Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, with the World Economic Forum, and Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (2008). 2008 Environmental Performance Index Maps Map on page 50 from University of Texas; Map on page 112 from http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/08/06103512/3, Open Government Licence http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/; Map on page 159 from From page 10, http://alain-bertaud.com/images/AB_Transportation_and_Urban_Spatial_Structure_revised2.pdf, with permission from Alain Bertaud; Map on page 209 from Danny Dorling, the University of Sheffield, 2007, http://sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/maps/nsdivide/index.html Tables Table on page 239 from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/pdf/WUP2011_Highlights.pdf, United Nations Publications Text Text on page 210 from http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/analysis/2201526/top-10-green-economy-stats, Business Green. In some instances we have been unable to trace the owners of copyright material, and we would appreciate any information that would enable us to do so. Websites The websites used in this book were correct and up to date at the time of publication. It is essential for tutors to preview each website before using it in class so as to ensure that the URL is still accurate, relevant and appropriate. We suggest that teachers bookmark useful websites and consider enabling students to access them through the school/college intranet. Disclaimer This Edexcel publication offers high-quality support for the delivery of Edexcel qualifications. Edexcel endorsement does not mean that this material is essential to achieve any Edexcel qualification, nor does it mean that this is the only suitable material available to support any Edexcel qualification. No endorsed material will be used verbatim in setting any Edexcel examination/assessment and any resource lists produced by Edexcel shall include this and other appropriate texts. Copies of official specifications for all Edexcel qualifications may be found on the Edexcel website www.edexcel.com

  • Contents Introduction: Edexcel GCSE Geography B 7 About this Teacher Guide 9 About Exam Zone and ResultsPlus 11 Unit 1: Dynamic planet Chapter 1: Restless Earth Scheme of work 13 Teacher notes 14 Extension activities 19 Answers 21 Case study extension activity 23 Making decisions 24 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 26 Chapter 2: Changing climate Scheme of work 29 Teacher notes 30 Extension activities 35 Answers 37 Case study extension activity 39 Making decisions 40 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 41 Chapter 3: Battle for the biosphere Scheme of work 44 Teacher notes 45 Extension activities 50 Answers 52 Case study extension activity 54 Making decisions 55 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 57 Chapter 4: Water world Scheme of work 60 Teacher notes 61 Extension activities 66 Answers 68 Case study extension activity 70 Making decisions 71 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 72 Chapter 5: Coastal change and conflict Scheme of work 75 Teacher notes 76 Extension activities 81 Answers 83 Case study extension activity 85 Making decisions 86 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 87 Chapter 6: River processes and pressures Scheme of work 90 Teacher notes 91

  • Extension activities 96 Answers 98 Case study extension activity 100 Making decisions 101 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 102 Chapter 7: Oceans on the edge Scheme of work 105 Teacher notes 106 Extension activities 111 Answers 113 Case study extension activity 116 Making decisions 117 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 119 Chapter 8: Extreme environments Scheme of work 122 Teacher notes 123 Extension activities 128 Answers 130 Case study extension activity 132 Making decisions 133 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 134 Unit 2: People and the planet Chapter 9: Population dynamics Scheme of work 137 Teacher notes 138 Extension activities 143 Answers 145 Case study extension activity 148 Making decisions 149 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 150 Chapter 10: Consuming resources Scheme of work 153 Teacher notes 154 Extension activities 159 Answers 161 Case study extension activity 163 Making decisions 164 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 165 Chapter 11: Globalisation Scheme of work 168 Teacher notes 169 Extension activities 174 Answers 176 Case study extension activity 179 Making decisions 180 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 181 Chapter 12: Development dilemmas Scheme of work 184 Teacher notes 185 Extension activities 190

  • Answers 192 Case study extension activity 195 Making decisions 196 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 200 Chapter 13: The changing economy of the UK Scheme of work 203 Teacher notes 204 Extension activities 209 Answers 211 Case study extension activity 213 Making decisions 214 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 215 Chapter 14: Changing settlements in the UK Scheme of work 218 Teacher notes 219 Extension activities 224 Answers 226 Case study extension activity 228 Making decisions 229 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 230 Chapter 15: The challenges of an urban world Scheme of work 233 Teacher notes 234 Extension activities 239 Answers 241 Case study extension activity 243 Making decisions 244 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 245 Chapter 16: The challenges of a rural world Scheme of work 248 Teacher notes 249 Extension activities 254 Answers 256 Case study extension activity 258 Making decisions 259 Revision summary and Chapter checklist 260 Unit 3: Making geographical decisions Chapter 17: Making geographical decisions Scheme of work 263 Teacher notes 264 Mark scheme foundation 269 Mark scheme higher 273 Unit 4: Investigating geography Chapter 18: Your fieldwork investigation Teacher notes 277 Extension activities 282 Answers 288

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 7

    Introduction: Edexcel GCSE Geography B Welcome to this new edition of the Edexcel GCSE Geography B Teacher Guide, which has been updated for the revised specification 2GB01, for first certification in 2014. The new Edexcel GCSE in Geography B has four units. Units 1 and 2 build up core knowledge and understanding, which is then developed in Units 3 and 4. Units 1 and 2 are based on core areas of human and physical geography, and then include optional topics. These optional topics cover specific human and physical geography processes in more depth. This allows centres to deliver comprehensive coverage of geographical processes and issues. Unit 3 is assessed through a decision-making exercise. Students will carry out this exercise using a Resource Booklet that they have not seen before the exam, drawing on their knowledge of the core topics of Units 1 and 2. This type of assessment encourages students to develop problem-solving techniques and the ability to make and explain their decisions. The fieldwork element of this course is found in Unit 4, the controlled assessment unit. The fieldwork task must be chosen from those provided by Edexcel, but centres can place them in the context of their local area. Planning the course The following planner is for a two-year course and covers the whole specification, assuming two hours of teaching per week. Each lesson covers one key idea from the specification. It is one possible model only, and should not be considered to be in any way prescriptive. Please note that a choice is to be made between two options in both section B and section C of Unit 1, and in both section B and section C of Unit 2. In this linear specification, all exams are taken at the end of the course. Unit 4 controlled assessment is submitted at the end of Year 11. This planner puts controlled assessment in the summer term of Year 10, but it can be completed at any time. This planner also covers the specification in the order it is presented, but you can teach the topics in any order you wish. For example, your choice of Unit 4 controlled assessment task might mean it makes more sense to cover Unit 2 first. It is clearly better to conduct the fieldwork data-gathering exercise when students have covered the appropriate area of the specification. There are also choices to be made about how you prepare students for Unit 3. As this is a synoptic unit, you might decide it makes sense to leave preparation until the end of the course, as this planner does; however, there is also much to be said for integrating the development of Unit 3 skills into your teaching of Units 1 and 2, with a shorter revision session towards the end of the course. If teaching time is divided between two teachers, there may be more flexibility in the delivery of Units 1 and 2, which could be taught in tandem rather than consecutively. With the move to linear, review and consolidation of all topics will be very important so sessions for this have been incorporated into the scheme.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 8

    Full schemes of work (suggested) for all four Units can be found on the Edexcel website. Week Content Weeks 14 Unit 1 section A

    Topic 1 Restless Earth Weeks 58 Unit 1 section A

    Topic 2: Changing climate Week 9 Consolidation and assessment Weeks 1013 Unit 1 section A

    Topic 3 Battle for the biosphere Weeks 1417 Unit 1 section A

    Topic 4 Water world Week 18 Consolidation and assessment Weeks 1922 Unit 1 section B

    Options either: Topic 5 Coastal change and conflict Or Topic 6 River processes and pressures

    Weeks 2326 Unit 1 section C Options either: Topic 7 Oceans on the edge Or Topic 8 Extreme environments

    Week 27 Consolidation and assessment Weeks 2834 Unit 4

    Researching geography (controlled assessment) Weeks 3538 Unit 2 section A

    Topic 1 Population dynamics Weeks 3942 Unit 2 section A

    Topic 2 Consuming resources Week 43 Consolidation and assessment Weeks 44-47 Unit 2 section A

    Topic 3 Globalisation Weeks 4851 Unit 2 section A

    Topic 3 Development dilemmas Week 52 Consolidation and assessment Weeks 5356 Unit 2 section B

    Options either: Topic 5 The changing UK economy Or Topic 6 Changing settlement in the UK

    Weeks 5760 Unit 2 section C Options either: Topic 7 The challenges of an urban world Or Topic 8 The challenges of a rural world

    Week 61 Consolidation and assessment Week 6267 Unit 3: Making geographical decisions and revision

    Teaching the course The next four pages provide an introduction to all the resources and give a detailed outline as to how to use each one.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 9

    About this Teacher Guide This Teacher Guide shows you how the resources in the Edexcel GCSE Geography B suite fit together, and gives guidance on how to plan for and implement the Evolving Planet specification. Student Book Teacher Guide Planning the course structure

    The advice given on p. 6 and 7 provides an introduction to the specification and gives guidance on how you might create a yearly plan.

    The Scheme of work for each chapter can be combined to make a complete and detailed yearly plan.

    Planning each lesson

    Teacher notes for all chapters provide a breakdown of each chapter into teachable sessions (based on approximately 2.5 teaching hours per week). Each session includes: starter and plenary ideas to engage your students with

    the subject matter these will include video, interactives, visual stimuli or class activities

    key teaching points the knowledge and understanding that students are required to develop

    a list of skills covered the key geographical skills that students are required to develop, categorised as: basic, graphical, cartographical, enquiry, decision-making, ICT and examination

    a suggested homework exercise this might be something from the Student Book or a supplementary activity from the Teacher Guide

    a list of key terms the geographical terminology that students should show evidence of in the examinations.

    All Student Book (SB), Teacher Guide (TG) and Active Teach (AT) resources are referenced next to each part of the session so that you know what you need to use and when.

    The final session for each chapter is revision. This can be used as a revision lesson to consolidate what has been learned at the end of the chapter, or can be used during structured revision lessons before examinations. The Scheme of work includes revision as a structured element of the teaching timetable.

    Introducing the course

    Pages 4 and 5 of the Student Book can be used to explain how the course is structured, and to engage your students with the course content. Similarly, at the start of each new Unit, it is useful to use the unit introductions.

    Introducing the Student Book features

    Pages 6 and 7 of the Student Book provide an overview of the features.

    Objectives These provide a clear overview of what the student will learn in the section of the topic. Objectives increase in difficulty.

    The objectives are included in the teaching points within the Teacher notes.

    Skills Skills builder activities provide skills practice to develop students geographical skills and understanding.

    Chapter 17 is dedicated to Unit 3 Making geographical decisions, with student advice and guidance plus a sample Resource Booklet and Foundation and Higher sample exam papers.

    Decision-making skills activities

    provide practice to help prepare for Unit 3. They are situated near the main student book content on which they are based. These should be used as a class activity and as a springboard for discussion and debate, or simple resource analysis. Where possible, encourage students to use both Unit 1 and Unit 2 knowledge and understanding in tackling these activities.

    All Student Book Skills builder activities are levelled. Levels Foundation or Higher (F and H) are given in the Teacher notes and Answers.

    Mark schemes and Student example answers are provided for Chapter 17 in the Student Book.

    Every chapter has a further Making decisions extension activity. These should be introduced in the class environment and then set either for completion within class or as homework. Each of these includes source material and a set of questions. Both Student Book and Teacher Guide Unit 3 skills can be used with Foundation and Higher students.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 10

    Student Book Teacher Guide Key terms Key terms are highlighted in bold within

    the Student Book pages. Definitions are included within the Student Book Glossary.

    The Teacher Guide reinforces key terms used in the Student Book and introduces new terms as appropriate to supplementary activities.

    Activities These provide extra support to ensure understanding of course content.

    All Student Book activities are levelled. Levels Foundation or Higher (F and H), Support or Stretch (Su and St) are given in the Teacher notes and Answers.

    Case study extension activities provide practice of using case studies to illustrate key geographical issues. These are all Stretch level activities and should be used with only high-level students. Some of the ideas presented within these activities take students beyond the Specification and Student Book content.

    Stretch and Support extension activities provide extra practice and are differentiated as either Stretch or Support level.

    Revision features Quick notes and Case study Quick notes pull out key information in examples and case studies for quick revision reference. A guide to the end-of-chapter and end-of-book Exam Zone pages is given on p. 8 of the Student Book. For each chapter there is: a chapter overview: outlining the

    key issue a You should know checklist of the

    key concepts and facts that students should know

    a key terms matching exercise to ensure students can understand and apply important geographical terminology

    a ResultsPlus Build Better Answers Foundation level and Higher level exam-style question plus guidance.

    Chapter checklists printable versions of the Student Book You should know checklists

    Revision summaries quick revision practice for each chapter divided into sub-topics and organised into recall, explain and apply.

    Assessment features

    ResultsPlus margin features and the end-of-chapter Exam Zone pages combine advice and guidance to show students how to achieve better results. They unpick exam questions, outline how answers should be structured and give guidance on how answers are marked.

    ResultsPlus margin features Exam question report and Build better answers are referenced in the relevant session within the Teacher notes.

    Top Tip and Watch Out! features provide additional guidance.

    Controlled assessment

    Chapter 18 is dedicated to the controlled assessment, and provides advice and guidance for each of the assessment criteria.

    Chapter 18 provides teacher notes and resources to support Unit 4.

    Answers Answers are provided to the Student Book Activities, Skills builders and the Teacher Guide Stretch and Support extension activities.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 11

    Exam Zone A dedicated suite of revision resources for complete exam success. Weve broken down the six stages of revision to ensure that students are prepared every step of the way.

    Zone in: How to get into the perfect zone for revision. Planning zone: Tips and advice on how to effectively plan revision. Know Zone: All the facts students need to know and exam-style practice at the end of every

    chapter. Dont panic zone: Last-minute revision tips for just before the exam. Exam Zone: Some exam-style questions for students to try, an explanation of the assessment

    objectives, plus a chance to see what a real exam paper looks like. Zone out: This section contains information on how students get their results and answers to

    frequently asked questions on what to do next.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 12

    ResultsPlus These features are based on the actual marks that students have achieved in past exams. They are combined with expert advice and guidance from examiners to show you how to achieve better results. The following ResultsPlus features should be used for self- and peer-assessment. It is worth spending time discussing how to create an answer to these questions. Exam Question Report: These show previous exam questions with details about how well students answered them. Red shows the number of students who scored low marks (less than 35% of the total marks) Orange shows the number of students who did okay (scoring between 35% and 70% of the total marks) Green shows the number of students who did well (scoring over 70% of the total marks). They explain how students could have achieved the top marks so that you can make sure that you answer these questions correctly in future. Build Better Answers: These give you an opportunity to answer some exam-style questions. They contain tips for what a basic, good and excellent answer will contain. The Student Book also includes the following features that should be used to highlight where students must pay attention and not make easily avoided mistakes: Top Tip: These provide examiner advice and guidance to help improve your results. Watch Out! These warn you about common mistakes and misconceptions that examiners frequently see students make. Make sure that you dont repeat them!

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography B Evolving Planet 13

    Weeks Content coverage/key questions Learning outcomes Resources (see Teacher notes for Chapter 1)

    4 Introduction to the course To understand the make-up of the course content and how the four units fit together. SB p. 4 and 5

    Unit introductions, SB 1.1.1 How and why do Earths tectonic plates move?

    The Earths interior has a layered structure, with different composition and physical properties; the Earths core generates

    heat, and convection currents drive plate motion.

    To identify the main features of the Earths layered structure. Chapter 1: Session 1

    To understand how the tectonic plates move. Chapter 1: Session 2

    There are conservative, constructive and destructive plate boundaries, each with characteristic volcanic and earthquake

    hazards.

    To describe the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes. Chapter 1: Session 3

    To understand how types of tectonic activity relate to types of plate boundary. Chapter 1: Session 4

    1. 1. 2 What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards?

    Volcanic and earthquake hazards affect people in different ways and at contrasting

    locations.

    To identify the different impacts of tectonic activity on people and the environment. Chapter 1: Session 5

    To compare the impacts of tectonic hazards at different levels of development. Chapter 1: Session 6

    Management of volcanic and earthquake hazards, at contrasting locations, ranging

    from short-term relief to long-term planning, preparation and prediction.

    To understand the different approaches to hazard management and the role of different players.

    Chapter 1: Sessions 7 and 8

    Revision Chapter 1: Session 9

    Scheme of work

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 14

    Teacher notes

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth Teaching and learning ideas Resources

    Sess

    ion

    1: Th

    e Ea

    rths

    stru

    ctur

    e an

    d co

    mpo

    sitio

    n

    Starter: Play the YouTube clip and ask students to consider the following: What are the key components of the Earth? What makes it an active planet?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxbIJH4fTYo

    Teaching points: Read through the Objectives to explain what students will learn in the first

    section of this topic. Students need to understand the dimensions of the planet and materials

    that make it up. Ask students how well they think they know the planet on which they live. Get them to draw a quick cross-section of the Earth (without using the Student Book) to include the core, mantle and crust ask them to add dimensions (in km). This might be a guess.

    Now ask them to identify the nature of the material that makes up these layers what is it and what is its state (liquid, solid or somewhere in between)? Gather students results and compare within the class.

    Figure 1 shows the real dimensions. How far does this compare to what students thought?

    Students complete Skills Builder 1 either in pairs or on their own. Discuss the answer as a class. Why are they wrong/right? Ask for their feedback.

    The planets materials vary greatly in type and in nature. Ask students what they understand by liquid. When does a liquid become a solid? Is there an intermediary state? Now look again at Figure 1 to see which state each layer is.

    Introduce students to the terms lithosphere and asthenosphere and the processes that occur within the crust, such as plate tectonics.

    Using real samples show granite and basalt rocks. Can students relate the size of the crystals to the rate of cooling? (Refer to Figures 3 and 4.)

    SB p. 12 and 13 Objectives, SB p. 12 Figure 1, SB p. 12 Skills Builder 1 , SB p. 12 Figures 3 and 4, SB p. 13

    Plenary: Students work in pairs to complete Activity 2. Review the key ideas of the session to link the key features of the Earths composition.

    Activity 2 , SB p. 13

    Homework: Students complete Extension activity 1, Q1. Extension activity 1, Q1 , TG Skills: Enquiry, basic. Key terms: Continental crust, oceanic crust, core. SB Glossary

    Sess

    ion

    2: Th

    e Ea

    rths

    sur

    face

    is in

    mot

    ion

    Starter: Play the YouTube clip. Explain that the lithosphere is in motion because of convection currents in the mantle below. This causes the crust to be broken into plates.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xWWowXtuvA&feature=related

    Teaching points: Review the lithosphere what is it? What is the evidence that it moves? The causes of these movements are the convection currents. Ask students to

    look at Figure 2 and in pairs explain to each other why the convection currents rise and why they fall back again.

    Convection currents are themselves driven by the core ask students to identify two processes that create convection currents (overlying material and radioactivity at the core). Discuss the responses.

    Ask the same pairs to discuss what might happen when a convection current rises and what is likely to happen when it sinks. By using Figure 2, students should be able to identify the features with which rising and falling convection currents are associated. (This could be illustrated using a lava lamp.)

    The creation of new crust takes place where rising convection currents are found. Ask students what else must be happening if new crust is being formed. Ask them to complete Activity 1 to distinguish between different types of crustal material.

    Crustal material is made up of rock. Ask students to use the Student Book to explain why that rock doesnt sink they should look back at what they learnt in Session 1.

    SB p. 12 and 13 Figure 2, SB p. 12 Lava lamp Activity 1 , SB p. 13

    Plenary: Students each name one key fact about the core. Use the bulleted list in the Student Book to check against. Set up the next session introducing the idea of plate boundaries using Figure 5. Ask students to guess what might be happening at those boundaries in terms of the convection currents.

    Figure 5, SB p. 13

    Homework: Stretch high-level students with Extension activity 1, Q4, 5, 6 and 7. Extension activity 1, Q4, 5, 6 and 7 , TG

    Skills: Cartographic, enquiry. Key terms: Convection currents, plate margin. SB Glossary

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 15

    Teacher notes

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Teaching and learning ideas Resources

    Sess

    ion

    3: Th

    e pl

    ate

    boun

    darie

    s an

    d th

    eir f

    eatu

    res

    (1)

    Starter: Use Figure 5 to explain that plate boundaries are dynamic places. Figure 5, SB p. 13

    Teaching points: Use Figure 5 to introduce the four different types of plate boundary. Students

    complete Skills Builder 2 and discuss answers as a class. Explain that there are four different types of boundary: destructive,

    constructive, collision and conservative. Ask students to work in pairs to brainstorm definitions of these boundaries what is happening at each one? Review their responses using the Student Book.

    Destructive boundary is shown in Figure 6. Ask students to look at Figure 6 and complete Activity 3. Review their answers and remind them of the link with convection currents.

    Constructive boundary is shown in Figure 7. Ask students to name the features it has in common with destructive boundary and those that are different. Construct a table on the whiteboard to show the results.

    Collision boundary is shown in Figure 8. Explain that not all plate boundaries lead to volcanic activity. Ask students to complete Activity 4. Discuss answers as a class.

    Conservative boundary is shown in Figure 9. It is most often associated with the famous Californian fault lines, notably the San Andreas, but there are many other examples. Students complete Activity 5. Review answers.

    SB p. 13 to 16 Figure 5, SB p. 13 Skills Builder 2 , SB p. 13 Figure 6, SB p. 14 Activity 3 , SB p. 14 Figure 7, SB p. 14 Figure 8, SB p. 14 Activity 4 , SB p. 14 Figure 9, SB p. 15 Activity 5 , SB p. 16

    Plenary: Different plate boundaries are associated with different events and different features.

    Homework: Students complete Extension activity 1, Q2. Stretch high-level students with the Case study extension activity on the Indo-Australian Plate.

    Extension activity 1, Q2 , TG Case study extension activity , TG

    Skills: Enquiry, cartographic. Key terms: Destructive, constructive, conservative and collision plate boundaries. SB Glossary

    Sess

    ion

    4: Th

    e pl

    ate

    boun

    darie

    s an

    d th

    eir f

    eatu

    res

    (2)

    Starter: Ask students to study Figures 10 and 11. How would they describe the distributions of earthquakes and volcanoes? Are there any similarities?

    Figures 10 and 11, SB p. 15

    Teaching points: Ask students to look back at Figure 5. What relationship can students find

    between plate boundaries and the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes?

    Explain that not all volcanic or earthquake activity takes place close to plate boundaries. An exception can be seen in Figure 12, according to the hotspot theory.

    All volcanoes can be classified as active, dormant or extinct. Ask students to name an example within each category.

    Ask students to look at Figure 13 and, by reviewing the material covered in Sessions 1 and 2, suggest what type of magma might be found at locations such as this one. Review responses and ask students to check the section in the Student Book about types of magma and volcanoes. They should then complete Activity 6.

    Different volcanoes have different shapes and structures according to the type of magma they are made of and the conditions in which they are formed. The two shapes are shield and composite. Discuss the features of each as students read the examples of Mauna Loa (a shield volcano) and Mount Pinatubo (a composite volcano).

    Play the Class interactive on violent volcanoes. Review the reasons why some volcanoes are violent while others are not.

    As a class create an answer to the ResultsPlus Build Better Answers exam-style question.

    Review the reasons why earthquakes vary in strength. Brainstorm why some earthquake events, although less powerful, might do more damage than more powerful events. Look at Figure 15.

    SB p. 13, 15, 16 and 17 Figure 5, SB p. 13 Figure 12, SB p. 16 Figure 13, SB p. 16 Activity 6 , SB p. 17 Figure 14, SB p. 16 Class interactive 1, AT ResultsPlus , SB p. 17 Figure 15, SB p. 17

    Plenary: Play the Class interactive on tectonic key words to recap geographical terminology. Summarise the threats posed by earthquakes and volcanoes to introduce the distinction between a hazard and a disaster.

    Class interactive 2, AT

    Homework: Students complete Extension activity 1, Q3. Extension activity 1, Q3 , TG Skills: Basic, examination, enquiry. Key terms: Plate margin. SB Glossary

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 16

    Teacher notes

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Teaching and learning ideas Resources

    Sess

    ion

    5: Th

    e im

    pact

    of e

    arth

    quak

    es

    Starter: Play the Video (and/or YouTube video clip) on the Kobe earthquake. Explain that the impact of tectonic hazards varies greatly not just according to the nature of the hazard but also the vulnerability of populations and their capacity to cope.

    Video and video notes 1, AT and/or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19fMs633Td4

    Teaching points: Read through the Objectives to explain what students will learn in the next

    section of this topic. The impact that tectonic hazards have can be categorised as causing

    either primary or secondary effects. Ask students to work in pairs and draw up a list of the immediate causes of death or injury that may occur as a result of an earthquake and then a list of secondary effects. Collect their results and write on the board under each heading: primary and secondary. Can students classify each effect as having a social or economic impact?

    Outline why some communities may be better prepared than others to deal with the threat posed by tectonic hazards: location, capacity, countrys level of development. Ask students to complete Activity 7. Compare answers as a class.

    Ask students to read the examples of the Kashmir and Loma Prieta events and look at Figures 16 and 17, and then complete Extension activity 2, Q1 and 4. Review their answers. Ask students to work in pairs to decide what lessons can be learned from the two events.

    SB p. 18 and 19 Objectives, SB p. 18 Activity 7 , SB p. 18 Figures 16 and 17, SB p. 19 Extension activity 2, Q1 and 4 , TG

    Plenary: Review the lessons of the two earthquakes using the Quick notes and look ahead to the comparison with volcanic events.

    Quick notes, SB p. 19

    Homework: Stretch high-level students with Extension activity 2, Q5. Extension activity 2, Q5 , TG Skills: Basic, enquiry. Key terms: Tectonic hazards, evacuation, prediction, magnitude. SB Glossary

    Sess

    ion

    6: Th

    e im

    pact

    of v

    olca

    nic

    erup

    tions

    Starter: Play the Class interactive (and/or YouTube video clips) on volcanic hazards. Explain that volcanic regions are sometimes very densely populated but, in most cases, volcanoes give some warning of their eruption. Sadly there are some exceptions to this.

    Class interactive 3, AT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DbZ_fP85iU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9De7lyLaYuU&feature=related

    Teaching points: Remind students of the differences between social and economic impacts

    of an event. Ask them to give examples of both. The impact of volcanic eruptions can be devastating for small and isolated

    communities. Islands are especially vulnerable. Ask students to study the examples of Montserrat and Laki, and look at Figure 18. Students complete Activity 8. If possible, they should use the internet to help them with their research. (They could download Google images of both volcanoes and annotate them with details of the eruptions.)

    Review students findings from Activity 8. Why do they think that some volcanic eruptions cause more loss of life than others? Collate their results on the whiteboard and get students to rank order the reasons.

    Remind students that Iceland today is very different to Iceland in the 18th century. Ask them to answer Extension activity 2, Q2. Review their findings.

    Stretch high-level students with the Making decisions extension activity on Montserrat.

    SB p. 19 to 21 Figure 18, SB p. 21 Activity 8 , SB p. 20 Extension activity 2, Q2 , TG Making decisions , TG

    Plenary: Take an overview of both of the previous sessions to draw some comparisons between earthquake and volcanic hazards. Use all Quick notes to recap key information.

    Quick notes, SB p. 19, 20 and 21

    Homework: Ask students to read the Results Plus Build Better Answers question (Higher) and write an answer for the same question, only outlining the impact of a major earthquake in the developed world.

    ResultPlus , SB p. 27

    Skills: ICT, GIS, enquiry. Key terms: Preparation. SB Glossary

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 17

    Teacher notes

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Teaching and learning ideas Resources

    Sess

    ion

    7: M

    anag

    ing

    the

    haza

    rd

    Starter: Managing hazards is expensive so, although we know most of the places at risk, it is still not easy to predict when events will take place.

    Teaching points: Events vary in their strength and their extent. Not all effects can be

    prevented so hard decisions have to be taken. Ask students to read the material in the Student Book on preparedness and mitigation. Ask students to complete Activity 9.

    Both preparedness and mitigation cost money. Ask students to work in pairs to draw up a list of pros and cons for political leaders of spending money in this way. Review the students results in a whole-class discussion.

    San Francisco has long been expecting a major earthquake. Ask students to read How ready is San Francisco?(p.22 and 23, Quick notes, Figure 19)

    Ask students to complete Extension activity 2, Q3 on their own. Collate their results on the whiteboard. Discuss them with the students and relate their decisions to the discussion about political decisions. Ask students what they would do if they lived in San Francisco.

    Review the ways in which buildings can be made safer (p. 23 and 24, Figure 20). Ask students to review the various ways of improving building design. As a class discuss what an excellent answer to the ResultsPlus Build Better Answers exam-style question might be.

    SB p. 20 to 25 Activity 9 , SB p. 21 Figure 19, SB p. 23 Quick notes, SB p. 23 Extension activity 2, Q3 , TG Figure 20, SB p. 24 Tables, SB p. 24 and 25 ResultsPlus , SB p. 25

    Plenary: Summarise the potential conflicts between the environment and consumption suggested by this session.

    Homework: Stretch high-level students with Extension activity 2, Q6. Extension activity 2, Q6 , TG Skills: Writing coherently, interpreting information. Key terms: Response, preparation, evacuation. SB Glossary

    Sess

    ion

    8: D

    ealin

    g w

    ith d

    isast

    ers

    Starter: The immediate response to tectonic disasters is often confused because of the lack of information and the disruption of the emergency services.

    Teaching points: Remind students that countries will vary in terms of their ability to respond to

    disasters and that the location of events will affect the speed of that response. Ask students to review the Loma Prita and Kashmir case studies.

    The disaster relief after the Izmit earthquake in 1999 was widely criticised. Ask students to complete the first Decision-making skills activity.

    Review the results of student research to address the question could more have been done?

    Play the Class interactive 4 on surviving an earthquake. Discuss as a class the second Decision-making skills activity on conflicts

    following a major disaster.

    SB, p. 25 Decision-making skills, SB p. 25 Class interactive 4, AT Decision-making skills, SB p. 25

    Plenary: Summarise why the response to tectonic hazards is not always efficient and suggest the potential conflicts that can arise between groups of people.

    Homework: Write up the results of the class discussion on the second Decision-making skills activity. Draw up a conflict matrix to highlight where conflict between different groups might arise.

    Decision-making skills, SB p. 25

    Skills: ICT. Key terms: Short-term emergency relief, long-term planning. SB Glossary

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 18

    Teacher notes

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Teaching and learning ideas Resources

    Sess

    ion

    9: R

    evisi

    on

    Getting started: Students recall the areas they have studied and complete individual

    checklist for revision to identify areas of strength and weakness. Debrief through whole-class question and answer session.

    SB p. 26

    Development: Revisit chapter and highlight key terms and case studies/examples that will

    require further focus. Students could work in pairs/groups to organise/summarise their notes under

    headings. Give students Revision Summary sheets to kick-start revision.

    SB, p. 12 to 25 TG and AT

    Exam questions practice: Students should revisit the ResultsPlus Build Better Answers questions in the

    chapter and at the end of the chapter in Exam Zone. Students complete the multiple-choice questions on Active Teach. Whole-class discussion of Edexcel Sample Assessment Materials and mark

    schemes. Practise answers needed in line with the mark scheme. Follow link to ResultsPlus interactives on Active Teach.

    ResultsPlus, SB p. 17, 25 ResultsPlus, SB p. 27 Know Zone, Exam Zone, AT www.edexcel.com ResultsPlus, AT

    Skills practice: Students should revisit the Skills Builder activities throughout the chapter. Students should revisit the Decision-making skills activities throughout the

    chapter and the Making decisions extension activity.

    Skills Builder, SB p. 12, 13 Decision-making skills, SB p. 25 Making decisions, TG

    Key terms: Students revisit key terms highlighted in text and refer to the Glossary. Students complete the key terms practice at the end of the chapter in Exam

    Zone.

    SB Glossary

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 19

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth

    Extension activity 1: How and why do the Earths tectonic plates move? Support 1) Using the Student Book as your guide, complete

    the table below.

    Thickness (km)

    Liquid or solid

    Type of material

    Continental crust

    Up to 100 Granitic rocks

    Oceanic crust

    Solid

    Upper mantle

    Ultrabasic rocks

    Lower mantle

    Ultrabasic rocks

    Outer core

    Liquid

    Inner core 1,300 Iron & nickel

    2) Using the Student Book as your guide, complete

    the table below. An example A feature

    found there

    A feature not found there

    Destructive margin

    An ocean trench

    Constructive margin

    Collision margin

    Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian

    Volcanoes

    Conservative margin

    Fault lines

    3) Write brief notes to explain: (a) Why shield volcanoes erupt frequently but rarely

    cause human disasters. (b) Why composite volcanoes erupt infrequently

    and sometimes cause major human disasters.

    Stretch 4) Using the internet and the Student Book,

    complete the table below.

    Temperature of material (oC)

    Density of material (g/cm3)

    Continental crust Ocean crust Upper mantle Lower mantle Outer core Inner core

    5) Using the internet, research the process of convection to answer the following questions:

    (a) What is the link between the radioactive decay of the Earths core and convection currents?

    (b) Why do convection currents both rise and fall (see Figure 2, Student Book p. 12)?

    6) Research continental drift on the internet and

    then answer the following questions: (a) Who is most commonly associated with the idea

    of continental drift? (b) Outline two ways in which continental drift

    differs from plate tectonic theory. 7) Look at the figure below (and look at the website http://www.newgeology.us/presentation25.html) and then research sea-floor spreading, to discover: (a) What is palaeomagnetism? (b) Why did seafloor spreading prove so important

    in supporting plate tectonic theory? (c) Why does oceanic crust get older as you get

    closer to continents?

    Extension activities

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 20

    Extension activity 2: What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards? Support 1) Read the sections on the Loma Prieta

    earthquake (1989) and the Kashmir earthquake (2005) (Student Book p. 19) and complete the table below.

    Earthquake Richter

    Scale Number killed

    Number injured

    Property damage

    Kashmir

    Loma Prieta

    2) Read the case study on the Laki eruption

    (Student Book p. 21) and then use the internet to discover three reasons why an Icelandic eruption today would be unlikely to cause the same loss of life.

    3) Complete the table below about how well prepared California is for an earthquake.

    I agree

    I disagree X Justify your answer

    The Big One will be more powerful than the Loma Prieta earthquake.

    The evacuation plans may be disrupted by communication problems.

    The risk of death and injury is greater for poor citizens than for the rich.

    It is not worth spending money to make buildings safer.

    Spending less money on the fire service will help the city deal with earthquakes.

    4) Using the Student Book and the internet, find

    examples to complete the table below.

    Good prediction, warning and /or evacuation

    No prediction no warning or evacuation

    Earthquake in a developed country

    Earthquake in a developing country

    Volcanic eruption in a developed country

    Volcanic eruption in a developing country

    Stretch

    5) This photo shows some of the results of an

    earthquake in Niigata (Japan) in 1964. Much of the damage done was a result of a process known as liquefaction.

    (a) What is liquefaction? (b) Outline the policies that you would suggest to

    deal with the risk of liquefaction if your city was at risk from earthquakes.

    6)(a) Using the

    http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/index.html, research the risk to San Francisco from liquefaction.

    (b) Click on the link Different maps for different purposes to answer the question: How much of San Francisco is at risk from liquefaction?

    (c) By clicking on What you can do about it?, identify four policies that could be implemented to mitigate the impact of liquefaction.

    (d) Now compare these policies with the policies you outlined for Question 5)(b). How do they differ?

    Extension activities

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 21

    Chapter 1: Answers Skills Builder 1 The thickness of the mantle on the diagram is from the end of the crust to the beginning of the core. Since the core starts at 2,900 km and the crust varies between 0 and 100 km, the mantle should be between 2,800 and 2,900 km thick, according to Figure 1.

    Skills Builder 2 1) Very uneven. Two basic categories close to continents or mid-ocean. There are a few exceptions, as with the Eurasian/Indo-Australian boundary. 2) (a) A destructive boundary/margin. (b) A collision boundary/margin. (c) A constructive boundary/margin.

    Activity 1 Continental rocks are lower in density and, having cooled slowly below the surface, are made up of larger crystals [of minerals such as quartz and feldspar]. The denser oceanic rocks are finer-grained, having cooled more rapidly on the surface.

    Activity 2 1) Oceanic crust is denser than continental. It is usually much thinner. It is composed of different minerals (crystal sizes/names of minerals). Oceanic crust subducts, but continental plate does not. 2) They move as convection currents of rising magma spread, cool and then descend again. These flows within the asthenosphere create movement in the lithosphere above.

    Activity 3 (a) The process whereby oceanic plate is forced below continental plate material, with melting taking place. (b) Because it is denser.

    Activity 4 (a) At collision boundaries, neither plate subducts because they are both made up of less dense continental material, so the plates crumple and thus thicken. (b) Because no subduction takes place, there is no melting thus no volcanoes are formed.

    Activity 5 The plates are both moving northwards, but at different rates, [causing friction between them].

    Activity 6 (a) They are made up of very fluid lava, are often wide at the base relative to their height, and have gently sloping sides. [They erupt frequently but rarely violently.] (b) The fluid lava flows greater distances from the vent(s) than more viscous lavas, thus forming gentler slopes.

    Activity 7 1) How exposed to a threat a place and population are. 2) Because hazards are not evenly spread on the planet, some places are more at risk and some places may be threatened by several hazards. Some places are more densely inhabited than others, which significantly increases the number of people who are vulnerable.

    Activity 8 (a) Montserrat and Laki are quite similar in that they occurred on islands that were vulnerable and the real effects were a consequence of the impact of the eruption on the economy. The Laki eruption, however, had far more devastating effects because the population were unable to leave Iceland and the impact on plant growth of the volcanic ash reduced the food supply, leading to starvation. On Montserrat the population were evacuated, both within the country and overseas. The two hundred years between the eruptions explains these different responses. A Laki-style eruption on Iceland today would not threaten the population because they and the international community would have the capacity to cope. (b) Unexpected events (such as Montserrat) will have greater impact because the population is not prepared. This is largely explained by the type of volcano, as those on destructive margins are much less predictable than those on constructive margins. However, in other places it is the density of population that makes the loss of life greater, combined with the sophistication of the warning systems in place and the evacuation procedures. [An obvious case of this is the risk posed by Vesuvius to the 1.5 million people who live under its shadow.]

    Activity 9 Preparation determines how ready the population is for a tectonic event, how trained they are, while mitigation covers those measures that have been taken to reduce its impact on both property and people. Illustrations of preparation and mitigation are as follows: Preparation [Nevada (and many other US

    states) has Emergency Management and Preparedness courses taught by emergency management professionals.]

    Answers

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 22

    Mitigation [In Japan the mitigation programme includes detailed evaluations and retrofitting of lifeline buildings such as hospitals, schools, water and power supply units, telecommunications buildings, airports/control towers, bus stops, etc.]

    Extension activities 1. How and why do the Earths tectonic plates move? Support 1)

    Thickness (km)

    Liquid or solid

    Type of material

    Cont. crust Up to 100 Solid Granitic rocks

    Ocean. crust 515 Solid Basalticrocks

    Upper man. 35450 Solidorviscoussolid

    Ultrabasic rocks

    Lower man. 2,4502,865

    Liquidorviscoussolid

    Ultrabasic rocks

    Outer core 2,200 Liquid Iron & sulphur

    Inner core 1,300 Solid Iron & nickel

    2) An example Feature

    found Feature not found

    Destructive margin

    Nazca and S. American

    An ocean trench

    Mid-ocean ridge

    Constructive margin

    Mid-Atlantic Eurasian and N. American

    Mid-ocean ridge, volcanoes

    Ocean trench, fold mountains

    Collision margin

    Indo-Austr. and Eurasian

    Mountain range

    Volcanoes

    Conservative margin

    Pacific and N. American

    Fault lines Volcanoes, ocean trench

    3)(a) The magma is very fluid (it has a low silica content) it flows freely so the volcanos vent(s) are rarely blocked, avoiding the build-up of pressure that makes other volcanoes so explosive. (b) The viscous lava frequently blocks vents, leading to a build-up of pressure from explosive gases that ultimately lead to a violent eruption. This threatens people and property through the pyroclastics. Stretch 4)

    Temperature (C) Density (g/cm3) Cont. crust 10200 2.73.0 Ocean crust 200600 3.03.3 Upper mantle 6001200 3.23.4 Lower mantle 12001700 4.05.0 Outer core 30004000 5.69.9 Inner core 4800 9.913.0

    5)(a) It is thought that radioactive decay in the core creates heat that creates rising convection currents. (b) They rise because of the temperature gradient (the difference in temperature between the lower and upper mantle). The sinking takes place because magma cools as it rises and then spreads and descends at convergent margins where ocean plate is subducted.

    6)(a) The German climatologist Alfred Wegener, who proposed the theory in 1915. (b) Wegener proposed that the continents ploughed through oceanic material like rafts on a sea, and his theory did not provide an effective explanation for the distribution of volcanoes. 7)(a) Palaeomagnetism is the magnetism still left in rocks from the time of their formation. (b) It provided a mechanism for, and evidence of, the process that pushed the plates apart. (c) The youngest material is nearest the constructive margin where it is being produced, while further away it gets older. 2. What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards? Support 1)

    Earthquake Richter Scale

    Num. killed

    Num. injured

    Property damage

    Kashmir 7.6 75,000 75,000 $440 m

    Loma Prieta 6.9 63 3,757 $10 bn

    3) The Big One will be . . .

    Most scientists predict that the Big One will be at least 7.5 on the Richter scale Loma Prieta was 6.9.

    The evacuation plans . . .

    Many of the communication centres are close to fault lines (and there is always communication disruption with earthquakes).

    The risk of death and injury is . . .

    Poorer people often live on less valuable land, which is more likely to be at risk. The quality of the buildings is likely to be poorer and less will have been spent on mitigation.

    It is not worth spending money . . .

    or X

    This is a cost/benefit issue and would depend on the degree of damage and the loss of life compared with the costs of making buildings safer.

    Spending less money . . .

    X This is implausible even if the money saved on the fire service was to be spent on some other mitigation effort.

    4) Good prediction, No

    prediction Earthquake in a developed country

    Many claims no clear examples

    Kobe Loma Prieta

    Earthquake in a developing country

    Haicheng Kashmir Izmir

    Volcanic eruption in a developed country

    St Helens No clear example

    Volcanic eruption in a developing country

    Pinatubo Montserrat

    Stretch 5)(a) When ground that contains water is shaken, the water and materials separate in such a way to liquefy the ground and destroy its bearing strength. (b) Avoid building in areas that are prone to liquefaction, such as alluvial or marine deposits. Make foundations extremely deep and use other building design techniques that resist movement.

    Answers

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 23

    Case study extension activity

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth The Indo-Australian Plate

    In 1995 it was discovered that the Indo-Australian tectonic plate was quite different from the others. A glance at a tectonic plate map suggests that it is odd, with land at both ends, and an ocean in the middle. Seafloor spreading had separated the land masses of India and Australia, but when it stopped about 2 billion years ago the two fused together into one plate. However, for the last 7.5 million years it seems that this unusual plate has been breaking apart into two sub-plates or proto-plates, which are now moving independently. The break-up probably happened when the Indo-Australian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate. The force of that collision pushed up the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau, but at the same time the stress of it cracked the Indo-Australian Plate. The centre of the split appears to be about 1000 km south of the tip of India. The Australian Plate, moving north-east at 67 mm per year, is rotating anti-clockwise around this point, so creating a constructive plate boundary to the west and a destructive plate boundary to the east (see map). Studies of the seabed have confirmed this, and in a few million years there will be well-defined plate boundaries here, rather than the present 900 km wide fracture, fault, and compression zone (once thought to be an intraplate). In the subduction zone it is not known whether the Australian Plate will subduct under the Indian or vice versa. The Australian Plate is moving faster than the Indian Plate (only 30 mm per year northwards).

    The splitting process is very important for the countries around the Indian Ocean, as demonstrated by the 2004 tsunami. Research shows that 90% of the energy released by the splitting is dissipated in the mantle, but 10% is directed through the crust in the form of earthquakes. Many of these tremors are underneath the sea, which means that there could be more tsunamis. About 1000 km south-west of Sumatra there has been a series of major earthquakes over the last thirty years, including a sequence of tremors, with the largest at magnitude 8.7, in April 2012 and their pattern suggests that a large rupture may be imminent. When this happens, there will be a range of tectonic activity including, for example, a mid-ocean ridge with a line of undersea volcanoes in the western Indian Ocean, major earthquakes and tsunamis in the eastern Indian Ocean, and some sinking of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau as the stress in the Indo-Australian Plate is released. On 26 December 2004 an earthquake measuring over 9 on the Richter scale thrust up part of the ocean floor by an average of 15 metres for many kilometres. The seawater that was displaced caused the tsunami waves that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of the Indian Ocean.

    Activity (1) Which processes in the crust and

    in the mantle are responsible for the split of the Indo-Australian Plate?

    (2) Why should countries around the Indian Ocean worry about what is happening to the Indo-Australian Plate?

    (3) What could or should the countries around the Indian Ocean be doing to prepare themselves? Why has action been slow to take place?

    (4) Investigate what will happen in East Africa in a few million years time. Is there any link between what is happening to the Indo-Australian Plate and what is happening to the African Plate?

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 24

    Making decisions

    Unit 1 Topic 1

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth

    Redesigning Monserrat post Soufrire Hills a) (i) In the box provided on the next page, make a copy of the sketch map below to show the locations of the new facilities built on Montserrat after the eruption of Soufrire Hills. (ii) Suggest reasons why the decision makers chose the locations. b) (i) By what percentage had the liveable area of Montserrat shrunk after the eruption? (ii) What problems would this cause? (iii) Why was the former capital of Plymouth abandoned?

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 25

    Making decisions

    Unit 1 Topic 1

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 26

    Revision summary

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth

    The interior of the Earth has a layered structure and the core generates heat and convection currents that drive plate motion Recall: You need to be able to define the key terms to describe the structure of the Earth (crust, mantle, core, lithosphere, asthenosphere). You also need to be able to define and identify the key processes that take place with the Earth (convection currents, plates). Make sure you are clear about how different rocks are found in different types of crustal material.

    Explain: You need to be able to explain how convection currents are created and how they drive the plates. You need to be able to explain why different rock types are created and how these rocks can be distinguished.

    Apply: Revisit Activities 1 and 2 in the Student Book (p. 13). Look at Figures 1 and 2 (p. 12) and check that you have an idea of the thickness of the various components. Use the text on p. 13 to help explain convection currents. Try to draw a cross-section of the Earth without reference to the book and check it for accuracy. Write out definitions of the key terms and check them against the terms in the Glossary.

    There are different types of plate boundary, each associated with distinctive processes and landforms Recall: You should be able to define the four major plate boundaries (destructive, constructive, collision and conservative). You should be able to distinguish between the processes operating at these boundaries. You should be able to define earthquakes and volcanoes and distinguish between different types of volcano. You should be able to offer examples of these.

    Explain: You should be able to explain why different types of boundary have distinctive processes and features. You should have a clear view of why shield and composite volcanoes are so different. You should be able to describe the form and recent history of both Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines).

    Apply: Revisit Activities 3 to 6. Make brief notes using the book and then close the book and answer the questions. Compare the differences between the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes shown on Figures 10 and 11 describe those differences and then explain them using your knowledge of different boundaries. Look at the ResultsPlus question (Build Better Answers, p.17). Now write an answer that would score maximum marks.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 27

    Revision summary

    Volcanic and earthquake hazards affect people in different ways in different places Recall: You should be able to identify the factors that explain why not all tectonic events become disasters. You should be able to define the terms hazard, vulnerability and ability to cope. You should be able to identify the main events in a series of examples of both events: for example, Kashmir, 2005; Loma Prieta, 1989; Montserrat, 1995; Laki, 1783.

    Explain: You should be able to explain why some tectonic events are so damaging to people and the environment. You need to be able to distinguish between the primary and secondary impacts of a tectonic hazard. You should be able to explain why some events are harder to manage than others. You should be able to describe several ways of designing buildings to resist earthquake shock and explain how countries are at different stages of development.

    Apply: Review the material on the case studies listed in Recall. Shut the book and then draw up a table to show the similarities and differences between the earthquake events and the two volcanic events. Write answers to Activities 7 and 8 and then check your answers against the book material (p. 1821). Write down definitions of the key words listed in Recall and check your answers against the Student Book Glossary.

    How should we cope with tectonic hazards? What is the best approach? Recall: You should be able to recall the details of the Loam Prieta earthquake (p. 19). You should be able to define the terms short-term relief and short-term planning. You should be able to recall the relief effort for the Kashmir earthquake (p. 19). You should be able to remember the details of the problems involved in the relief effort after the Izmit earthquake (p. 25).

    Explain: You should be able to explain the differences between preparedness and mitigation. Using p. 22 and 23, you should be able to explain the issues facing the people of San Francisco and how they are planning for the next big earthquake.

    Apply: Review Activity 9 (p. 21). Complete an excellent answer to the ResultsPlus question (Build Better Answers, p. 25). Review the Decision-making skills activities on p. 25. Draw up a conflict matrix to identify potential sources of conflict between different groups after a major tectonic disaster has occurred. Now revisit the Know Zone section on p. 26 and 27.

  • Pearson Education Ltd 2013 Edexcel GCSE Geography Evolving Planet 28

    Chapter 1: Restless Earth

    Read through the following list and evaluate how well you know and understand each of the topics.

    How and why do the Earths tectonic plates move?

    What oceanic and continental tectonic plates are, and how and why they move

    The different layers of the Earths interior and how they differ

    Why the asthenosphere is an important part of the mantle

    How convection in the mantle drives plate tectonic motion

    That there are different types of plate margin

    How new oceanic crust forms at constructive plate margins

    How ocean crust is subducted at destructive plate margins

    How earthquakes and volcanoes form at destructive plate margins

    Why earthquakes occur along conservative plate margins

    Why fold mountains form in collision zones

    How destructive collision zone earthquakes can be

    How to explain the global pattern of earthquakes and volcanoes

    How shield and composite volcanoes form from different types of magma

    What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards?

    How hazards are measured using the VEI, Richter and Mercalli scales

    The difference between primary and secondary impacts

    Detailed causes and impacts for the Montserrat and Laki eruptions

    Detailed causes and impacts for the Loma Prieta and Kashmir earthquakes

    How earthquakes and volcanoes can be planned for and even predicted

    The different types of hazard response, both short-term and long-term