CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Geography GCSE Revision Edexcel Specification A

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  • Geography GCSE Revision

    EdexcelSpecification A

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Getting Organised!


    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • CDunne/TYork (c)2008

    The Economic World

    Economic Systems


    Secondary Industries

    Sectors of Industry

    Characteristics of Farming

    Factors affecting location of secondary activities

    Employment structure as an indicator of differences between countries

    How farming is changing

    ICT in Bracknell

    How patterns change over time

    EU - CAP

    Informal/Formal industry

    Case Studies

    Rice farming in the Philippines

    EU changes in UK


    Fiat in Brazil


    Resource Development and the Local Environment

    The Global Environment

    The mining and quarrying of raw materials

    Acid rain

    Tropical rainforest, a fragile ecosystem

    National Parks, land use and conflicts

    Global warming

    Water pollution in a river, lake or sea

    Case Studies

    Nant Gwyn open-cast coal mining

    Derbyshire limestone quarrying

    Amazonia rainforest

    River Guadimar water pollution

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  • Economic Activities:1. Commercial and Subsistence Farming Systems2. How Farming is ChangingEconomic World PRIMARY ACTIVITYFarming as a SystemInputsSunlightRainfall / water supplyLand / soilLabour (workforce)Capital (money)Seeds / fertiliser / pesticidesanimalsProcessesCultivation of crops e.g. ploughing, irrigationRearing of animalsOutputsCropsAnimalsAnimal products e.g. milk / meatOutputs:To sellFarmers own useFeedbackFactors Affecting FarmingSocial & Economic FactorsLabourCapital (moneyTechnologyMarketsGovernment

    Environmental FactorsClimateReliefSoilDo you know your case studies?Intensive Wet Rice Farming PhilippinesEU Changes in the UK (CAP)Types of Agriculture1. Enterprise:ArablePastoralMixed2. Intensity of Production:IntensiveExtensive3. Subsistence/CommercialCAP Make sure you know what is this and what changes it brought:DiversificationSet-asideQuotasList examples of other primary activities.

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Classification of FarmingSpecialisationArable Pastoral Mixed Economic Status:Commercial farming -Subsistence farming Intensity of Land Use:ExtensiveIntensive

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Types of Farming Global General Knowledge

    Type of FarmingExampleNomadic HuntingAborigines, AustraliaNomadic herdingMaasai in KenyaShifting cultivationAmerindians in AmazoniaIntensive subsistence agricultureRice farming in the Ganges DeltaPlantation agricultureSugar cane in BrazilLivestock ranching (commercial pastoral)Beef on the PampasCereal cultivationCanadian PrairiesMixed farmingNetherlandsMediterranean agricultureSouthern ItalyIrrigationNile Valley, CaliforniaUnsuitableSahara Desert

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Factors Affecting FarmingPhysical FactorsReliefSoilsRainfallTemperature

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Factors Affecting FarmingHuman FactorsGovernment aidFertiliserMechanisationMarketingSize of farmCompetition for land

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Common Agricultural PolicyCreated in 1962Aims:To protect farmers incomesTo ensure reasonable and steady prices for consumersTo increase production to provide sufficient food supplies

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • CAP achieved by Grants and subsidies money for farmers who farm in difficult areasPrice support a guaranteed minimum price for agricultural produce (may cause surplusesVery expensive sustainable?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Case Study: How is Farming Changing?Home Farm, West MidlandsSet aside:EU funded scheme to reduce surplusesFarmers are paid not to grow anything for 5 years (left fallow)Payment = up to 300 per year!Diversification to Caravans and B&BRenting land out for Grazing

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Case Study: How is Farming Changing?Diversification:This is when farmers develop business initiatives other than farmingExamples:Barns converted in to holiday cottages, garden centres and farm shopsTea shops

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Case Study: How is Farming Changing?Agribusinesses:Large-scale, highly efficient farmsOrganised on scientific and business principlesIncludes a chain of suppliers and retailersBelongs to a group of other farmsAble to reduce cost of inputs economies of scale

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Quick Quiz1. Make a list of all the factors that affect farming you mind find it easier to split them into physical and human factors.2. What are:Arable farmsPastoral farmsMixed farms?3. Explain what is meant by the following:Intensive farmsExtensive farmsSubsistence farmsCommercial farms4. What does CAP stand for?5. What is diversification?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Economic Activities:1. The location of manufacturing industries2. The location of distribution industriesThe Economic World SECONDARY ACTIVITIESC Dunne 2005Industry as a SystemInputsRaw materialsLandLabourPowerTransportCapital (money)ProcessesMaking the goodsProcessPackagingDistributionOutputsFinished product for the consumer or to other industriesWaste productsProfit or LossProfit ReinvestedUgandaUKEmployment Structure label and explain. The first chunk is primary, the second secondary and the last tertiary.What other types of economic activity are there?Location of IndustryWhere?Why?

    Case Studies:Heavy industrye.g. iron & steel IndustryFootloose Industrye.g. Hi-tech industry Distribution Industry e.g. Argos, StaffordCan you interpret a Triangular Graph?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Location FactorsWhat is needed?Large, flat siteRaw materialsEnergyTransport (links)LabourMarket

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • High-Tech Industries Bracknell Computer DevelopmentWhy have they located here? (Where is it exactly?)The following may give you a few clues but make sure you have re-read the case study.These may be described as footloose because they are not really restricted by the location factors of raw materials e.g. pc factoriesTend to opt for locations near major route ways e.g. M4 / M11 corridorsAlso locate near university sites research facilitiesWould prefer sites that area aesthetically pleasing for their workersYOU NEED TO KNOW THIS CASE STUDY!

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Formal and Informal sectorsWhat are the differences?What characterises an informal sector job?What is the advantage of a formal sector job?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Some industries are classed as Heavy Industry e.g. Iron and steelSouth Wales e.g. Ebbw Vale, Merthyr TydfilNatural Advantages:CoalfieldsLimestoneIron oreFlat site (of Valley)River (Rhonnda) cooling finished productLocal settlements work forcePort (gateway to the British Empire market)These areas are where industry used to be but then it moved for several reasons.

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • How did location factors change?Empire countries gained independence more competition; market not as strongCoal and iron ore reserves were becoming exhausted (running out!); seams were too thin to mine or inaccessible (making it more expensive to mine)Original valley site not big enough for modern factoriesCoastal areas were better as they were the areas where relatively cheap imported materials were coming inThere were better places in the world to make things that were cheaper Place like Britain got rid of lots of their industries to countries like Brazil.

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Brazil - FiatWhat is a Trans National Company (TNC) Why did Fiat move from Italy to Brazil?Why did Fiat expand in Brazil?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Bonus KnowledgeThe Decline of ManufacturingDe-industrialisation the growing importance of tertiary (Service and Tourism) and quaternary (High tech Research and Development e.g. NASA) industriesPort Talbot steelworks is the only one remaining in Wales; Llanwern steelworks closed in 2001 (1300 jobs lost)

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • The Reason for the DeclineGlobalisation:many companies compete on a global scalecompetition is strongconstantly looking for cheaper raw materials and/or manufactured goods

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • The ConsequencesCoal mine / steel works closeHigh unemploymentPeople have less money to spend on goods and servicesFewer taxes and business rates paid to the councilLess investment by council for education, schools and other key servicesYoung people leave school with fewer/poorer qualificationsPeople have more time, less opportunities, less moneyPetty crime often increasesEnvironmental decline

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Political ResponsesDevelopment areas government gives financial assistance (in what forms?)Encouragement of new industries in the area of decline:Retail parks using the old steelworks site (a bit like Bluewater old gravel pit)Tourism heritage site / museumManufacturing (hi-tech) LG now located there (but this brings with it other problems. Can you think of any?)

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Distribution IndustriesE.g. Argos Warehouse, StaffordshireCentral locationCan reach any of their stores by over-night deliveryLocated on the junction 34/A51 on the M6Lots of space to house the huge warehouse

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008

  • Quick QuizName the 4 types of industryHow does this classification help when talking about the employment structure and development of a country?Briefly define/explain the term systemList the important factors when considering the location of industryWhat is heavy industry?Which case study? Where? Why? What happened?What is a footloose industry?

    CDunne/TYork (c)2008