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Music GCSE edexcel

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Music GCSE Edexcel

Music GCSE Edexcel Lena steinberg

AREA OF STUDY 1Western Classical Music

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Musical Features:ImitationSequencesSyllabic and Melismatic word setting

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Melody:4 Melodies:Melody 1 Based on triad of A major Syllabic Sung by all parts, started by the AltosMelody 2 Descending sequences Melismattic - Sung by all parts, started by the AltosMelody 3 Repetition, featuring sequences Syllabic and Melismattic - Sung by all parts, started by the AltosMelody 4 Pedal note repeated syllabic mainly sung by tenors and basses

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Rhythm:Driving regular beat on crothcht rhythms matches stately moodUse of HEMIOLA notes grouped in 2 beats, instead of the 3 beats of the time signature

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Structure:Based on four contrasting melodies (See melody slide)

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Instrumentation:Written for four voices Soprano, Alto, Tenor and BassFeaturing String orchestra (Violins, Violas and Cellos)Also Featuring Basso continuo (Harpsichord or Organ)

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Dynamics:No dynamics are printed on the scoreHowever, terraced dynamics are achieved by adding and taking away parts and instruments

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Harmony:Clear A major harmonies minor is avoidedPerfect cadences during the piece (V-I)Plagal cadence at end of piece (IV-I)

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Tempo:ALLEGRO all the way throughApart from ADAGIO for last four bars of pieceTime signature of piece is

And the Glory of the Lord (from Messiah) Handel Texture:Alternating homophonic and polyphonic sectionsEnds with all part playing together - Homophonic

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartMusical Features:Pedal Notes are used in the development

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartMelody:Two subjectsSonata Form (see structure slide)

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartRhythm:Scale passages and rising sequences1st subject crochet and quaver rhythms2nd subject Slower, legato rhythms

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartStructure:Sonata form:Exposition: First subject ( G minor)Bridge passageSecond subject ( B flat major)CodettaDevelopment:Based on opening of first subjectTexture becomes more polyphonicExplores different keys very quicklyPedal notes are used in development of themes, as they are passed between instrumentsRecapitulation:Not a direct repetition of exposition, as both subjects are G minor and bridge passage is longerCoda

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartInstrumentation:Normal orchestraOnly 1 FluteNo trumpetsNo Timps

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartDynamics:Starts off pLots of dynamic contrastUse of sfz and accents

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartHarmony:

ExpositionDevelopmentRecapitulationCoda1st SubjectG MinorVariety of keysG MinorG Minor2nd SubjectB flat MajorG MinorG Minor

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartTempo:Molto AllegroTime signature

Symphony No.40 in G minor - MozartTexture:Mainly Melody with accompanimentSome homophonic sectionsPolyphonic in development

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorMusical Features:Careful expressive use od pedals, particularly in the sustaining pedalSOSTENUTO sustainedACCIACATURA Crushing note melodic decorationPEDAL NOTE A flat in the piece

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorMelody:A sectionFalling motif to represent the sadnessElegiac melody in right handB sectionMood is dark and stormyMelody in left handEqually balanced 4 bar phrasesFalling phrases which represent rain (nicknamed Raindrop Prelude)

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorRhythm:Repeated quaversSustained tempo4 beats in a bar which always stays the sameDotted rhythms in the A sectionCrochet Rhythms in the B sectionSeptuplets are usedRubarto

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorStructure:Ternary formA sectionB sectionA section (Very short)CodaA section has its own ternary form

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorInstrumentation:Solo piano

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorDynamics:Extreme dynamicsA section is generally quietB section has a very big crescendo, but ends in pp

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorHarmony:7th and 9th chords are usedNotes added to triadPerfect cadenceD flat MajorEnharmonic modulation (From D flat major in A section, to C sharp minor in B section)Dominant pedal note ( A flat in A section, G sharp in B section)

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorTempoUse of rubartoTime signature is

Prelude No.15 in D flat MajorTexture:Melody dominated homophonyHomophonicMelody with accompanimentMonophonic bar in second A section

Area of Study 2Music in the 20th century

Peripetie - SchoenbergMelody:Use of hexachords Klangfarben melodie Melody moves between partsWord paintingCanon

Peripetie - SchoenbergRhythm:Different rhythms which overlapHaubptstimme Main melody which is symbolised in the score like this :Nebenstimme second melody which is symbolised in the score like this:

Peripetie - SchoenbergStructure:Free rondoABA1CA2

Peripetie - SchoenbergInstrumentation:Written for a very large orchestraUnusual instrumentation3 flutesCor anglais3 bassoonsPiccolos Instruments played at extremes of their registersSchoenberg is very specific with his tones and timbreHi-hat played with cello bowMuted but playing ffGlissandoTremolo

Peripetie - SchoenbergDynamics:ExtremesSudden changes (e.g. from fff to pp)

Peripetie - SchoenbergHarmony:Dissonant (using intervals of a 7th)HexachordsATONAL

Peripetie - SchoenbergTempo:Changes throughout the pieceSehr rash (very quick)Etwas rhuiger (a little slower)Heftig (Quick)

Peripetie - SchoenbergTexture:Homophonic and solo sectionsPolyphonic sections

Somethings coming - BernsteinMelody:Lots of short riffsCombination of short phrases and long sustained notes

Somethings coming - BernsteinRhythm:Lots of syncopationOstinatiCross-rhythmsPush-rhythmsAccented off beats

Somethings coming - BernsteinStructure:Not a typical verse chorus structure

IntroSection ASection BSection B1Section A1Outro

Somethings coming - BernsteinInstrumentation:Solo male singer (tenor)Large orchestra (however this is hidden from the score)

Somethings coming - BernsteinDynamics:Tony starts singing ppGradually gets louderFades out at end

Somethings coming - BernsteinHarmony:D majorUse of tritone augmented 4th Jazz harmony added blues notes

Somethings coming - BernsteinTempo:Very fast 176 bpmPush-rhythms makes the piece feel fasterSome sections are Other sections are

Somethings coming - BernsteinTexture:Melody with accompaniment

Electric Counterpoint - ReichMelody:Repeated melodies (motifs)Resultant melodiesGuitar 3 uses additive melodyTwo or three notes are added each bar, until the whole riff can be heard

Electric Counterpoint - ReichRhythm:Layered ostinatoPhase shiftedDisplacedMinimalistInterviewing rhythms

Electric Counterpoint - ReichStructure:Divided into two main sections with a codaThese two sections are further divided into four smaller sectionsEach of which is defined by a change in texture or key

Electric Counterpoint - ReichInstrumentation:10 guitars all together1 live guitar7 electric guitars 2 bass guitarsEach guitar enters one after each other (cannon)

Electric Counterpoint - ReichDynamics:Not many dynamics printedDynamics achieved by layering instruments

Electric Counterpoint - ReichHarmony:Diatonic harmoniesTonal ambiguityBass guitar confirms the key is E minorAEOLIAN MODEChanges to C minor in second sectionFinishes with a E5 chord (No third)

Electric Counterpoint - ReichTempo:Time signature changesFromToToConstant tempo throughout

Electric Counterpoint - ReichTexture:Multi-layered texture is achieved by each track being multi-trackedMade of short motifs that are repeatedCounter point (polyphonic)Panning is used

AREA OF STUDY 3Popular music in context

All Blues - DavisMelody:The main melody (HEAD) and the solos are all played over the 12-bar-blues chord sequence (see harmony slide)Based on the notes of the Mixolydian mode on GThe improvisations are ornamented and combine riffs

All Blues - DavisRhythm:The rhythms section provides the harmony and rhythmic backgroundThe rhythmic section provides the COMPING playing the background chords and rhythms

All Blues - DavisStructure:

SectionCommentINTRODrums, bass riff, piano trill, alto and tenor sax riff in thirdsHEADThis is where the original tune is played. Played on muted trumpet with a simple motif moving mainly by stepLINKBreaks up repetition of head and provides contrastHEAD1Same as first but melody is slightly more developed- ride cymbal is added by drumsIMPROVISED SOLO (TRUMPET)First solo performed by Miles Davis. Trumpet mute is removed. 4 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequence. Mixolydian mode on GIMPROVISED SOLO (ALTO SAX)4 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequence. Chromatic and very technicalIMPROVISED SOLO (TENOR SAX)4 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequence.IMPROVISED SOLO (PIANO)Comping in left hand. 2 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequenceHEAD2Same as first HEAD, trumpet is muted againHEAD3Melody developed with more of a minor feelOUTROTrumpet solo on the tonic G note, over the sax riff and the piano trill

All Blues - DavisInstrumentation:Front lineTrumpetAlto saxophoneTenor saxophoneRhythm sectionPianoBassDrums

All Blues - DavisDynamics:Mainly p throughoutDiminuendo in fifth HEAD

All Blues - DavisHarmony:Based around repeated 12-bar-chord sequence, with 4 linking sections between each sectionTraditional sequence has been altered by extending and altering bars 9 and 10Repeated 19 times in totalModal JazzFocuses on mixolydian mode on G


All Blues - DavisTempo:156 bpmFeels like dotted rhythmJazz waltz Time signature is

All Blues - DavisTexture:Made up of riffs3 riffs are used1st G D ED F DED played by double bass2nd D/B E/C F/D E/C played by alto and tenor saxophones in thirds

Grace Jeff BuckleyMelody:Vocal melody in the verse has a limited pitch range, becoming higher in the pre chorusA whispering backing vocal adds variety to the melody in the chorusThe telephone EQ effect added to the vocal melody in the middle 8 gives a harsh and distant effectVerse 3 sees the pitch of the vocal melody becoming higher Extremely high pitched vocal (FALSETTO) improvisation in the outro including melisma

Grace Jeff BuckleyRhythm:Rhythm of the intro is highlighted by the acoustic guitar and hi-hat cymbals, which drive the song forwardDuring the verse, more emphasis is placed on the toms of the drum kitA drum roll leads into the middle 8 sectionCymbals used more prominently in verse 3The unifying rhythm of the song is a solid rock beat

Grace Jeff BuckleyStructure:

IntoVerse 1Pre-chorus 1ChorusLinkVerse 2Pre-chorus 2ChorusMiddle 8LinkVerse 3Outro

Grace Jeff BuckleyInstrumentation:Main instrumentsDrum kitBass GuitarThree electric guitarsAcoustic guitarLead VocalsAdditional instrumentsBacking vocalsStrings

Grace Jeff BuckleyDynamics:Starts p, but has a f chord in the introWhisper effect on the electric guitar uses dynamic picking Having the volume turned down and then turning it up quickly

Grace Jeff BuckleyHarmony:Bass guitar provides pedal note D upon which harmonies and chords are constructedDuring the verse the electric guitar plays power chords The harmonies are modal, with E as the tonic noteEm Em/F5 Em/Eb5The pre chorus uses more complex chords, with 9th and 6th notes addedComplex harmonies in the middle 8 Hummed vocals with long sustained notes on stringsKey is not clear from first three chords, but arrives in D major at the end of the intro

Grace Jeff BuckleyTempo:64 bpm - Dotted crochetTime signature is

Grace Jeff BuckleyTexture:Textural contrast is created when parts drop outTexture in verse is thinnerThick polyphonic texture in middle 8

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyMelody:Piano provides an accompaniment to the vocal sample with a synthesiser pad doubling some of the piano notes, but also takes on the role of the melody in placesThere are elements of call and response between the piano and vocal sample

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyRhythm:Hip-hop drum loop used throughout, also called a back beatPiano accompaniment changes to syncopated rhythm in verse 1

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyStructure:


Chord sequence 1VERSE 1

Chord sequence 1 X4CHORUS

Chord sequence 2 + 3VERSE 2

Chord sequence 1 X2BREAKCHORUS

Chord sequence 2,3,3OUTRO

Chord sequence 1

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyInstrumentation:Multi-effect unitDrum machineSynth bass soundPiano soundString soundVocal samples

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyDynamics:Song begins p and increases in relation to the texture

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyHarmony:Based around chord sequences limited harmonic rangeBoth vocal samples are in the key on A minorHarmonised to break second feel c majorModulation

NumberChord sequenceChord sequence 1Am Am Em Em G G D D Chord sequence 2C C Am Am C C Am Am Chord sequence 3F F C C F F C C

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyTempo:Constant throughout at 98 bpmTime signature is

Why does my heart feel so bad? - MobyTexture:Instruments come in and drop out for textual contrastSustained chordsStatic chordsTelephone EQ effectBreakDelay effectEQReverb

AREA OF STUDY 4World music

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieMelody:Melodic lines are played in the folk styleInstruments improvise around melodyTypical features of a walking song are used:VocablesRepetition of each line of the verseSlow rhythm

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieRhythm:The shakers and hi-hat play every two beats giving the rhythm a triple feelThe vocal part has a characteristic lilting rhythmSecond and fifth beat of the bar are emphasised by the accordion

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieStructure:


Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieInstrumentation:

FOLK INSTRUMENTSPOP INSTRUMENTSAccordionPianoFlutesSynthUillean pipesAcoustic guitarBouzoukiElectric guitarBodhranDrum and percussionfiddleVocals

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieDynamics:Build up with textureFade out at the end of the song

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieHarmony:Only using 4 chords simple harmonyChanges in chord sequence highlight change in mood/ sectionE minor pentatonic

SectionChord sequenceIntroEm GVerse 4C G Em GVerse 7Am7 Em Em GOutroC G

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieTempo:Slow and calm typical of a lamentCompound quadruple timeTime signature

Skye Waulking song - CapercaillieTexture:Heterophonic in instrumentsImprovised counterpoint around melodyMonophonic bar before verseCounter melody

Rag Desh Version 1 - Anoushka ShankarInstruments:SitarTabla

Rag Desh Version 1 - Anoushka ShankarALAP:Slow and unmeteredUnaccompanied sitar explores the first notes of the ragaFree rhythms sound improvised, due to a lack of a regular pulseSome decoration to melody

Rag Desh Version 1 - Anoushka ShankarGAT 1:Sitar plays fixed composition rather than improvisation, but decorates melody with flourishes and ornamentsMedium tempoTabla enters playing 10 beat JHAPTAL tala with decoration There is dialogue between sitar and tabla

Rag Desh Version 1 - Anoushka ShankarGAT 2:Faster tempoTabla now switches to TIN TAL tala

Rag Desh Version 1 - Anoushka ShankarJHALLA:Drone strings are used on the sitar which are strummed providing a rhythmic effectPiece ends with a TIHAI Phrase which is played three times across the beat ending on the first beat of the cycle

Rag Desh Version 2 Chiranji Lal TanwarInstruments:VoiceSarangiSarodPakhawajCymbalsTabla

Rag Desh Version 2 Chiranji Lal TanwarALAP:Short introduction as the saraod player, then the singer, vocalise the melody, based ont eh notes of the ragaFree timeA version of the chorus from the song

Rag Desh Version 2 Chiranji Lal TanwarBHAJAN:A fixed compositionSong in verse form, with the first lines used as a refrainTabla plays KEHERWA tableSarod and sarangi play solo passages between versesDynamics and tempo increaseMusic becomes faster and more exiting, as the cymbals play more frequently

Rag Desh Version 3 Wertheimer & GornInstruments:BansuriEsrajTamburaTabla

Rag Desh Version 3 Wertheimer & GornALAP:Slow and unmeteredDrone is established by tamburaBansuri enters exploring the notes of the raga

Rag Desh Version 3 Wertheimer & GornGAT 1:Slow tempoBansuri plays lyrical, unaccompanied melodyThe tabla enters playing RUPAK talaBansuri and tabla players embellish and improvise upon their original patters, instruments then swap; Bansuri improvises, table accompanies

Rag Desh Version 3 Wertheimer & GornGAT 2:Fast tempoTabla now uses EKTAL talaBansuri plays an elaborate melody with wide ranging pitch, fast scale passages (tans) and slidesSeveral THIAIs bring music to a closeDrone continues shortly after melody ends

Rag Desh - talasTalaNumber of BeatsPiece which it is played inRUPAK7 beatsVersion 3 played by tabla in GAT 1KEHERWA8 beatsVersion 2 played by tabla in BHAJANJHAPTAL10 beatsVersion 1 played by tabla in GAT 1 EKTAL12 beatsVersion 3 played by tabla in GAT 2TINTAL16 beatsVersion 1 Played by tabla in GAT 2

YiriMelody:The opening solo balaphone melody is high pitched and is a simple repetitive idea, using rolls on each noteWhen the second balaphone enters the melody becomes more syncopatedThe vocal melody is short, simple and repetitiveMelodies are often varied by different instrumentsContrasting melody in call and response section, long held notes and short punctuated notes on Yiri

YiriRhythm:The balaphone ostinato in combination produces a complex polyphonic textureThe drum ostinato perform a relentless one bar starting in the intro, performed by the talking drum, small talking drum and djembeThe drum ostinati are decorated with occasional rhythmic fillsThe balaphone performes cross-rhythms in the call and response section, which become syncopated during the coda



YiriInstrumentation:BalaphoneFluteChoirDjembeTam-tamDundunMaracasTalking drumDunno

YiriDynamics:Soft dynamics which are increased as instruments are addedNo dynamics printed on score

YiriHarmony:Harmony remains close to the tonic Gb major throughout, making frequent use of the dominant Db noteWhen the voice enters in chorus A1 they sound in unison

YiriTempo:Piece starts off in free tempo but continues in moderate tampo

YiriTexture:Stars off with a monophonic texture with a solo balaphoneWhen second balaphone joins in they play in octavesHeterophonic textureCall and response