of 109 /109
Music GCSE Edexcel LENA STEINBERG

Music GCSE edexcel

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Music GCSE edexcel

Music GCSE Edexcel

LENA STEINBERG

Page 2: Music GCSE edexcel

AREA OF STUDY 1

WESTERN CLASSICAL MUSIC

Page 3: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Musical Features:◦ Imitation◦ Sequences◦ Syllabic and Melismatic word setting

Page 4: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Melody:◦ 4 Melodies:◦ Melody 1 – Based on triad of A major – Syllabic – Sung by all parts, started by the Altos◦ Melody 2 – Descending sequences – Melismattic - Sung by all parts, started by the Altos◦ Melody 3 – Repetition, featuring sequences – Syllabic and Melismattic - Sung by all parts, started by the

Altos◦ Melody 4 – Pedal note – repeated – syllabic – mainly sung by tenors and basses

Page 5: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Rhythm:◦ Driving regular beat on crothcht rhythms – matches stately mood◦ Use of HEMIOLA – notes grouped in 2 beats, instead of the 3 beats of the time signature

Page 6: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Structure:◦ Based on four contrasting melodies (See melody slide)

Page 7: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Instrumentation:◦ Written for four voices – Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass◦ Featuring String orchestra (Violins, Violas and Cellos)◦ Also Featuring Basso continuo (Harpsichord or Organ)

Page 8: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Dynamics:◦ No dynamics are printed on the score◦ However, terraced dynamics are achieved by adding and taking away parts and instruments

Page 9: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Harmony:◦ Clear A major harmonies – minor is avoided◦ Perfect cadences during the piece (V-I)◦ Plagal cadence at end of piece (IV-I)

Page 10: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Tempo:◦ ALLEGRO all the way through◦ Apart from ADAGIO for last four bars of piece◦ Time signature of piece is

Page 11: Music GCSE edexcel

And the Glory of the Lord (from ‘Messiah’) – Handel

Texture:◦ Alternating homophonic and polyphonic sections◦ Ends with all part playing together - Homophonic

Page 12: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Musical Features:◦ Pedal Notes are used in the development

Page 13: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Melody:◦ Two subjects◦ Sonata Form (see structure slide)

Page 14: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Rhythm:◦ Scale passages and rising sequences◦ 1st subject – crochet and quaver rhythms◦ 2nd subject – Slower, legato rhythms

Page 15: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Structure:◦ Sonata form:◦ Exposition:

◦ First subject ( G minor)◦ Bridge passage◦ Second subject ( B flat major)◦ Codetta

◦ Development:◦ Based on opening of first subject◦ Texture becomes more polyphonic◦ Explores different keys very quickly◦ Pedal notes are used in development of themes, as they are passed between instruments

◦ Recapitulation:◦ Not a direct repetition of exposition, as both subjects are G minor and bridge passage is longer

◦ Coda

Page 16: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Instrumentation:◦ Normal orchestra◦ Only 1 Flute◦ No trumpets◦ No Timps

Page 17: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Dynamics:◦ Starts off p◦ Lots of dynamic contrast◦ Use of sfz and accents

Page 18: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Harmony:

Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda

1st Subject G Minor Variety of keys G Minor G Minor

2nd Subject B flat Major G Minor G Minor

Page 19: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Tempo:◦ Molto Allegro◦ Time signature

Page 20: Music GCSE edexcel

Symphony No.40 in G minor - Mozart

Texture:◦ Mainly Melody with accompaniment◦ Some homophonic sections◦ Polyphonic in development

Page 21: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Musical Features:

◦ Careful expressive use od pedals, particularly in the sustaining pedal◦ SOSTENUTO – sustained◦ ACCIACATURA – “Crushing note” – melodic decoration◦ PEDAL NOTE – A flat in the piece

Page 22: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Melody:

◦ A section◦ Falling motif to represent the sadness◦ Elegiac melody in right hand

◦ B section◦ Mood is dark and stormy◦ Melody in left hand

◦ Equally balanced 4 bar phrases◦ Falling phrases which represent rain (nicknamed “Raindrop Prelude”)

Page 23: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Rhythm:

◦ Repeated quavers◦ Sustained tempo◦ 4 beats in a bar which always stays the same◦ Dotted rhythms in the A section◦ Crochet Rhythms in the B section◦ Septuplets are used◦ Rubarto

Page 24: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Structure:

◦ Ternary form◦ A section◦ B section◦ A section (Very short)◦ Coda

◦ A section has it’s own ternary form

Page 25: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Instrumentation:

◦ Solo piano

Page 26: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Dynamics:

◦ Extreme dynamics◦ A section is generally quiet◦ B section has a very big crescendo, but ends in pp

Page 27: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Harmony:

◦ 7th and 9th chords are used◦ Notes added to triad◦ Perfect cadence◦ D flat Major◦ Enharmonic modulation (From D flat major in A section, to C sharp minor in B section)◦ Dominant pedal note ( A flat in A section, G sharp in B section)

Page 28: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Tempo

◦ Use of rubarto◦ Time signature is

Page 29: Music GCSE edexcel

Prelude No.15 in D flat Major Texture:

◦ Melody dominated homophony◦ Homophonic◦ Melody with accompaniment◦ Monophonic bar in second A section

Page 30: Music GCSE edexcel

Area of Study 2MUSIC IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Page 31: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Melody:

◦ Use of hexachords ◦ Klangfarben melodie – Melody moves between parts◦ Word painting◦ Canon

Page 32: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Rhythm:

◦ Different rhythms which overlap◦ Haubptstimme – Main melody which is symbolised in the score like this :◦ Nebenstimme – second melody which is symbolised in the score like this:

Page 33: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Structure:

◦ Free rondo◦ A◦ B◦ A1◦ C◦ A2

Page 34: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Instrumentation:

◦ Written for a very large orchestra◦ Unusual instrumentation

◦ 3 flutes◦ Cor anglais◦ 3 bassoons◦ Piccolos

◦ Instruments played at extremes of their registers◦ Schoenberg is very specific with his tones and timbre

◦ Hi-hat played with cello bow◦ Muted but playing ff◦ Glissando◦ Tremolo

Page 35: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Dynamics:

◦ Extremes◦ Sudden changes (e.g. from fff to pp)

Page 36: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Harmony:

◦ Dissonant (using intervals of a 7th)◦ Hexachords◦ ATONAL

Page 37: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Tempo:

◦ Changes throughout the piece◦ Sehr rash (very quick)◦ Etwas rhuiger (a little slower)◦ Heftig (Quick)

Page 38: Music GCSE edexcel

Peripetie - Schoenberg Texture:

◦ Homophonic and solo sections◦ Polyphonic sections

Page 39: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Melody:

◦ Lots of short riffs◦ Combination of short phrases and long sustained notes

Page 40: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Rhythm:

◦ Lots of syncopation◦ Ostinati◦ Cross-rhythms◦ Push-rhythms◦ Accented off beats

Page 41: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Structure:

◦ Not a typical verse chorus structure

Intro Section A Section B

Section B1 Section A1 Outro

Page 42: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Instrumentation:

◦ Solo male singer (tenor)◦ Large orchestra (however this is hidden from the score)

Page 43: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Dynamics:

◦ Tony starts singing pp◦ Gradually gets louder◦ Fades out at end

Page 44: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Harmony:

◦ D major◦ Use of tritone – augmented 4th ◦ Jazz harmony – added blues notes

Page 45: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Tempo:

◦ Very fast – 176 bpm◦ Push-rhythms makes the piece feel faster◦ Some sections are ◦ Other sections are

Page 46: Music GCSE edexcel

Something’s coming - Bernstein Texture:

◦ Melody with accompaniment

Page 47: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Melody:

◦ Repeated melodies (motifs)◦ Resultant melodies◦ Guitar 3 uses additive melody

◦ Two or three notes are added each bar, until the whole riff can be heard

Page 48: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Rhythm:

◦ Layered ostinato◦ Phase shifted◦ Displaced◦ Minimalist◦ Interviewing rhythms

Page 49: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Structure:

◦ Divided into two main sections with a coda◦ These two sections are further divided into four smaller sections

◦ Each of which is defined by a change in texture or key

Page 50: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Instrumentation:

◦ 10 guitars all together◦ 1 live guitar◦ 7 electric guitars ◦ 2 bass guitars

◦ Each guitar enters one after each other (cannon)

Page 51: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Dynamics:

◦ Not many dynamics printed◦ Dynamics achieved by layering instruments

Page 52: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Harmony:

◦ Diatonic harmonies◦ Tonal ambiguity◦ Bass guitar confirms the key is E minor◦ AEOLIAN MODE◦ Changes to C minor in second section◦ Finishes with a E5 chord (No third)

Page 53: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Tempo:

◦ Time signature changes◦ From◦ To◦ To

◦ Constant tempo throughout

Page 54: Music GCSE edexcel

Electric Counterpoint - Reich Texture:

◦ Multi-layered texture is achieved by each track being multi-tracked◦ Made of short motifs that are repeated◦ Counter point (polyphonic)◦ Panning is used

Page 55: Music GCSE edexcel

AREA OF STUDY 3

POPULAR MUSIC IN CONTEXT

Page 56: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Melody:

◦ The main melody (HEAD) and the solos are all played over the 12-bar-blues chord sequence (see harmony slide)

◦ Based on the notes of the Mixolydian mode on G◦ The improvisations are ornamented and combine riffs

Page 57: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Rhythm:

◦ The rhythms section provides the harmony and rhythmic background◦ The rhythmic section provides the COMPING playing the background chords and rhythms

Page 58: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Structure:

Section CommentINTRO Drums, bass riff, piano trill, alto and tenor sax riff in thirds

HEAD This is where the original tune is played. Played on muted trumpet with a simple motif moving mainly by step

LINK Breaks up repetition of head and provides contrastHEAD1 Same as first but melody is slightly more developed- ride cymbal is added by

drumsIMPROVISED SOLO (TRUMPET) First solo performed by Miles Davis. Trumpet mute is removed. 4 repetitions

of the 12-bar-blues sequence. Mixolydian mode on GIMPROVISED SOLO (ALTO SAX) 4 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequence. Chromatic and very technicalIMPROVISED SOLO (TENOR SAX) 4 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequence.IMPROVISED SOLO (PIANO) Comping in left hand. 2 repetitions of the 12-bar-blues sequenceHEAD2 Same as first HEAD, trumpet is muted againHEAD3 Melody developed with more of a minor feelOUTRO Trumpet solo on the tonic G note, over the sax riff and the piano trill

Page 59: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Instrumentation:

◦ Front line◦ Trumpet◦ Alto saxophone◦ Tenor saxophone

◦ Rhythm section◦ Piano◦ Bass◦ Drums

Page 60: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Dynamics:

◦ Mainly p throughout◦ Diminuendo in fifth HEAD

Page 61: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Harmony:

◦ Based around repeated 12-bar-chord sequence, with 4 linking sections between each section◦ Traditional sequence has been altered by extending and altering bars 9 and 10◦ Repeated 19 times in total◦ Modal Jazz

◦ Focuses on mixolydian mode on G

G7 G7 G7 G7

C7 C7 G7 G7

D7#9 Eb7#9 G7 G7

Page 62: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Tempo:

◦ 156 bpm◦ Feels like dotted rhythm◦ Jazz waltz ◦ Time signature is

Page 63: Music GCSE edexcel

All Blues - Davis Texture:

◦ Made up of riffs◦ 3 riffs are used

◦ 1st – G D ED F DED – played by double bass◦ 2nd – D/B E/C F/D E/C – played by alto and tenor saxophones in thirds

Page 64: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Melody:

◦ Vocal melody in the verse has a limited pitch range, becoming higher in the pre chorus◦ A “whispering” backing vocal adds variety to the melody in the chorus◦ The telephone EQ effect added to the vocal melody in the middle 8 gives a harsh and distant effect◦ Verse 3 sees the pitch of the vocal melody becoming higher ◦ Extremely high pitched vocal (FALSETTO) improvisation in the outro including melisma

Page 65: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Rhythm:

◦ Rhythm of the intro is highlighted by the acoustic guitar and hi-hat cymbals, which “drive” the song forward

◦ During the verse, more emphasis is placed on the toms of the drum kit◦ A drum roll leads into the middle 8 section◦ Cymbals used more prominently in verse 3◦ The unifying rhythm of the song is a solid rock beat

Page 66: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Structure:

Into Verse 1 Pre-chorus 1 Chorus

Link Verse 2 Pre-chorus 2 Chorus

Middle 8 Link Verse 3 Outro

Page 67: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Instrumentation:

◦ Main instruments◦ Drum kit◦ Bass Guitar◦ Three electric guitars◦ Acoustic guitar◦ Lead Vocals

◦ Additional instruments◦ Backing vocals◦ Strings

Page 68: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Dynamics:

◦ Starts p, but has a f chord in the intro◦ Whisper effect on the electric guitar uses dynamic picking

◦ Having the volume turned down and then turning it up quickly

Page 69: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Harmony:

◦ Bass guitar provides pedal note “D” upon which harmonies and chords are constructed◦ During the verse the electric guitar plays power chords

◦ The harmonies are modal, with E as the tonic note◦ Em Em/F5 Em/Eb5

◦ The pre chorus uses more complex chords, with 9th and 6th notes added◦ Complex harmonies in the middle 8

◦ Hummed vocals with long sustained notes on strings◦ Key is not clear from first three chords, but arrives in D major at the end of the intro

Page 70: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Tempo:

◦ 64 bpm - Dotted crochet◦ Time signature is

Page 71: Music GCSE edexcel

Grace – Jeff Buckley Texture:

◦ Textural contrast is created when parts drop out◦ Texture in verse is thinner◦ Thick polyphonic texture in middle 8

Page 72: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Melody:◦ Piano provides an accompaniment to the vocal sample with a synthesiser pad doubling some of the

piano notes, but also takes on the role of the melody in places◦ There are elements of call and response between the piano and vocal sample

Page 73: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Rhythm:◦ Hip-hop drum loop used throughout, also called a back beat◦ Piano accompaniment changes to syncopated rhythm in verse 1

Page 74: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Structure:

INTRO

Chord sequence 1

VERSE 1

Chord sequence 1 X4

CHORUS

Chord sequence 2 + 3

VERSE 2

Chord sequence 1 X2

BREAK CHORUS

Chord sequence 2,3,3

OUTRO

Chord sequence 1

Page 75: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Instrumentation:◦ Multi-effect unit◦ Drum machine◦ Synth bass sound◦ Piano sound◦ String sound◦ Vocal samples

Page 76: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Dynamics:◦ Song begins p and increases in relation to the texture

Page 77: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Harmony:◦ Based around chord sequences – limited harmonic range◦ Both vocal samples are in the key on A minor◦ Harmonised to break second feel c major◦ Modulation

Number Chord sequence

Chord sequence 1 Am Am Em Em G G D D

Chord sequence 2 C C Am Am C C Am Am

Chord sequence 3 F F C C F F C C

Page 78: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Tempo:◦ Constant throughout at 98 bpm◦ Time signature is

Page 79: Music GCSE edexcel

Why does my heart feel so bad? - Moby

Texture:◦ Instruments come in and drop out for textual contrast◦ Sustained chords◦ Static chords◦ Telephone EQ effect◦ Break◦ Delay effect◦ EQ◦ Reverb

Page 80: Music GCSE edexcel

AREA OF STUDY 4

WORLD MUSIC

Page 81: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Melody:◦ Melodic lines are played in the folk style◦ Instruments improvise around melody◦ Typical features of a walking song are used:

◦ Vocables◦ Repetition of each line of the verse◦ Slow rhythm

Page 82: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Rhythm:◦ The shakers and hi-hat play every two beats giving the rhythm a triple feel◦ The vocal part has a characteristic lilting rhythm◦ Second and fifth beat of the bar are emphasised by the accordion

Page 83: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Structure:

INTRO VEERSE 1 BREAK VERSE 2

VERSE 3 VERSE 4 VERSE 5 VERSE 6

INSTRUMENTAL VERSE 7 VERSE 8 OUTRO

Page 84: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Instrumentation:

FOLK INSTRUMENTS POP INSTRUMENTS

Accordion Piano

Flutes Synth

Uillean pipes Acoustic guitar

Bouzouki Electric guitar

Bodhran Drum and percussion

fiddle

Vocals

Page 85: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Dynamics:◦ Build up with texture◦ Fade out at the end of the song

Page 86: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Harmony:◦ Only using 4 chords – simple harmony◦ Changes in chord sequence highlight change in mood/ section◦ E minor pentatonic

Section Chord sequence

Intro Em G

Verse 4 C G Em G

Verse 7 Am7 Em Em G

Outro C G

Page 87: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Tempo:◦ Slow and calm – typical of a lament◦ Compound quadruple time◦ Time signature

Page 88: Music GCSE edexcel

Skye Waulking song - Capercaillie

Texture:◦ Heterophonic – in instruments◦ Improvised counterpoint around melody◦ Monophonic bar before verse◦ Counter melody

Page 89: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 1 - Anoushka Shankar

Instruments:◦ Sitar◦ Tabla

Page 90: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 1 - Anoushka Shankar

ALAP:◦ Slow and unmetered◦ Unaccompanied sitar explores the first notes of the raga◦ Free rhythms sound improvised, due to a lack of a regular pulse◦ Some decoration to melody

Page 91: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 1 - Anoushka Shankar

GAT 1:◦ Sitar plays fixed composition rather than improvisation, but decorates melody with flourishes and

ornaments◦ Medium tempo◦ Tabla enters playing 10 beat JHAPTAL tala with decoration ◦ There is dialogue between sitar and tabla

Page 92: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 1 - Anoushka Shankar

GAT 2:◦ Faster tempo◦ Tabla now switches to TIN TAL tala

Page 93: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 1 - Anoushka Shankar

JHALLA:◦ Drone strings are used on the sitar which are strummed providing a rhythmic effect◦ Piece ends with a TIHAI

◦ Phrase which is played three times across the beat ending on the first beat of the cycle

Page 94: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 2 – Chiranji Lal Tanwar

Instruments:◦ Voice◦ Sarangi◦ Sarod◦ Pakhawaj◦ Cymbals◦ Tabla

Page 95: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 2 – Chiranji Lal Tanwar

ALAP:◦ Short introduction as the saraod player, then the singer, vocalise the melody, based ont eh notes of the

raga◦ Free time◦ A version of the chorus from the song

Page 96: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 2 – Chiranji Lal Tanwar

BHAJAN:◦ A fixed composition◦ Song in verse form, with the first lines used as a refrain◦ Tabla plays KEHERWA table◦ Sarod and sarangi play solo passages between verses◦ Dynamics and tempo increase◦ Music becomes faster and more exiting, as the cymbals play more frequently

Page 97: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 3 – Wertheimer & Gorn

Instruments:◦ Bansuri◦ Esraj◦ Tambura◦ Tabla

Page 98: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 3 – Wertheimer & Gorn

ALAP:◦ Slow and unmetered◦ Drone is established by tambura◦ Bansuri enters exploring the notes of the raga

Page 99: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 3 – Wertheimer & Gorn

GAT 1:◦ Slow tempo◦ Bansuri plays lyrical, unaccompanied melody◦ The tabla enters playing RUPAK tala◦ Bansuri and tabla players embellish and improvise upon their original patters, instruments then swap;

Bansuri improvises, table accompanies

Page 100: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh – Version 3 – Wertheimer & Gorn

GAT 2:◦ Fast tempo◦ Tabla now uses EKTAL tala◦ Bansuri plays an elaborate melody with wide ranging pitch, fast scale passages (tans) and slides◦ Several THIAIs bring music to a close◦ Drone continues shortly after melody ends

Page 101: Music GCSE edexcel

Rag Desh - talasTala Number of Beats Piece which it is played in

RUPAK 7 beats Version 3 – played by tabla in GAT 1

KEHERWA 8 beats Version 2 – played by tabla in BHAJAN

JHAPTAL 10 beats Version 1 – played by tabla in GAT 1

EKTAL 12 beats Version 3 – played by tabla in GAT 2

TINTAL 16 beats Version 1 – Played by tabla in GAT 2

Page 102: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Melody:

◦ The opening solo balaphone melody is high pitched and is a simple repetitive idea, using “rolls” on each note

◦ When the second balaphone enters the melody becomes more syncopated◦ The vocal melody is short, simple and repetitive◦ Melodies are often varied by different instruments◦ Contrasting melody in call and response section, long held notes and short punctuated notes on “Yiri”

Page 103: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Rhythm:

◦ The balaphone ostinato in combination produces a complex polyphonic texture◦ The drum ostinato perform a relentless one bar starting in the intro, performed by the talking drum,

small talking drum and djembe◦ The drum ostinati are decorated with occasional rhythmic fills◦ The balaphone performes cross-rhythms in the call and response section, which become syncopated

during the coda

Page 104: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Structure:

INTRO CHORUS A1 BREAK

CHORUS A2 BREAK CALL & RESPONSE

CHORUS B1 CHORUS A3 CODA

Page 105: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Instrumentation:

◦ Balaphone◦ Flute◦ Choir◦ Djembe◦ Tam-tam◦ Dundun◦ Maracas◦ Talking drum◦ Dunno

Page 106: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Dynamics:

◦ Soft dynamics which are increased as instruments are added◦ No dynamics printed on score

Page 107: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Harmony:

◦ Harmony remains close to the tonic Gb major throughout, making frequent use of the dominant Db note

◦ When the voice enters in chorus A1 they sound in unison

Page 108: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Tempo:

◦ Piece starts off in free tempo but continues in moderate tampo

Page 109: Music GCSE edexcel

Yiri Texture:

◦ Stars off with a monophonic texture with a solo balaphone◦ When second balaphone joins in they play in octaves◦ Heterophonic texture◦ Call and response