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Population Change Revision - Edexcel Geography GCSE

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Notes for the Edexcel Geography GCSE regarding Population Change. This involves the One Child Policy from China and the Three or More Policy Singapore, two important case studies. Many other notes are provided too.

Text of Population Change Revision - Edexcel Geography GCSE

  • Population Change RevisionBy Diane Stetcu

  • Key words

    Population the people living in an area

    Population distribution how people are spread out in a place

    Population density the number of people per square km (how crowed an area is)

    Densely populated more than 50 people per km (crowed)

    Sparsely populated less than 10 people per km

  • Why are areas DENSLEY populated?

    Flat land (easy to build on)

    Mild climate (easy to live in)

    Fertile soil

    Good education system

    Tourist attractions

    Good health care

    Job opportunities (more money)Easy access to

    river or sea

    Yellow = physical factors Orange = human factors

  • So, why are areas sparsely

    populated?

  • Why are areas SPARSELY populated?

    Extreme climate; too hot or cold (difficult to live in)

    High relief (hard to access)

    Lack of water

    Poor/no education system

    No tourist attractions

    Poor health care

    No job opportunities

    Inaccessible

    Yellow = physical factors Orange = human factors

    Infertile soil

  • Factors that determine population change

    Infant mortality the number of babies per 1000 born that die before their first birthday.

    Immigrants a person who moves into an area or country.

    Birth rate the number of births per 1000 people in a year.

    Carrying capacity the maximum number of people that can be supported by the resources and technology of a given area.

    Death rate the number of deaths per 1000 people per year.

    Natural change the birth rate minus the death rate.

    Migration the long-term movement of people.

    Emigrants a person who moves out of an area or country.

  • Example of natural change

    Country Birth rate Death rate Rate of natural change

    Swaziland 27.0 30.4 -3.4

    Cambodia 25.5 8.2 17.3

    Chile 15.0 5.9 9.1

    UK 10.7 10.1 0.6

  • Why do birth and death rates vary as a country develops?Social

    Women are educated about contraception in HICs and would want to focus on their career.

    Also, couples will want smaller families.

    In LICs, they have less knowledge about maternity and women arent as likely to continue their education.

    Economic

    In HICs, its expensive to bring up a child.

    186,032 to raise a child until theyre 21.

    In LICs, children are considered a financial asset.

    In HICs, children are considered a financial burden.

    Medical

    HICs continuously have now treatments for diseases.

    LICs struggle, with people dying from simple diseases.

    Political

    China have introduced the One Child Policy to reduce the birth rate.

    Other countries have introduced incentives to increase birth rates, such as Singapore.

  • Case study: Poland and the falling birth rates

    Reasons for a declining birth rate

    More young people, especially women, want to continue their education

    Women want to work and be independent

    Housing shortage

    The cost of raising children is increasing

    Unemployment didnt exist during the communist government era

    Women dont want to risk losing their jobs after maternity leave

    Now couples are worried to start a family because they dont have financial security.

    Government incentives to increase birth

    rates

    Improving public kindergarten

    More flats are being built

    Extend maternity leave

    Pays couples for each child they have

  • Demographic Transition Model

  • The Demographic Transition Model explanation

    Stage 1 High fluctuating

    Stage 2 Early expanding

    Stage 3 Late expanding

    Stage 4 Low fluctuating

    Stage 5 - Decline

    What? High birth rate and death rate

    High birth rate, falling death rate

    High birth rate, falling death rate

    Low birth rate and low death rate

    Death rate is higherthan birth rate

    Why? No contraception Religion Infant mortality No medical care or

    hygiene

    Better hygiene Better health

    care Improved

    education

    Contraception is available

    Women are continuing their education

    Health care is good

    Contraception widely used

    Education is being continued

    Women are very focused on their careers

    Where? Rainforest tribes Banglaesh Brazil Japan/UK Germany

  • Population and precipitation distribution of China

    Towards the west of China, its sparsely populated. This is because there is less than 50mm of precipitation per year. Kashgar is an example.

    In East and South East China, its densely populated. Areas such as Shanghai have over 520 people per square mile. This is because there is low relief and high precipitation. Additionally, theres easy access to sea.

  • Case study: Chinas One Child Policy

    Why?

    An economic reform was taking place

    To improve living standards

    In 1979, China had of the worlds population!

    of the population were under the age of 30

    People born in the 1950s and 60s were entering their reproducing years

  • Case study: Chinas One Child Policy (continued)

    IncentivesDisincentives

    Free education

    Cash bonuses

    Couples are given a one-child certificate package

    Preferential housing arrangements

    Better child care

    Free medical care

    Longer maternity leave

    Receive heavy fines Could be sacked from their job

    Couples are required to pledge not to have more children

    Women who have children already are urged to use contraception or undergo sterilisation

    Granny police monitor child births, how many children couples have, catch out liars

    Women with unauthorised pregnancies are pressured to have abortions

  • Case study: Chinas One Child Policy (continued)

    Recent changes to the One Child

    Policy

    In rural areas (approx. 70% live there), a second child is generally allowed after 5 years if the first child is a girl

    A third child is allowed in some ethnic minorities and in remote, unpopulated areas

    Urban residents and government employees have to follow the policy and is strictly enforced

    Exceptions include if the first child has a disability or if both parents work in high-risk occupations such as mining

  • Case study: Singapore, three or more

    Why?

    They feared the economy would collapse

    The population was decreasing after a two is enough policy

    They also feared they wouldnt have enough workers

  • Case study: Singapore, three or more (continued)

    IncentivesDisincentives

    3 months maternity leave for mothers

    3 days of paternity leave on the birth of the first 4 children

    5 days of paid childcare leave a year

    More children means a bigger flat/property

    $95 for a maid

    $6,000 for the 3rd

    and 4th child

    $3,000 for the 1st and 2nd child

    2nd 4th child has a savings account

    Sterilisation isnt allowed unless youve had 3 or more children

    Couples with one child or none can only buy a 3 bedroom flat

  • Case study: Ageing population in Japan

    Disadvantages

    Workforce: businesses are struggling to recruit. Many pensioners are having to continue to work. A solution is to encourage migrant labour.

    Pensions: the Prime Minister has introduced reforms which includes the retirement age being increased from 60 to 65 by 2030 and higher pension contributions from employers, employees and the government.

    Health care: Many pensioners are living in nursing homes or care homes now. This is putting pressure on the health budget, more than half goes towards caring for the elderly.

    In 2006, incentives were introduced to promote independent living at home. A health insurance scheme for over 75s were introduced in 2007. It has been nicknamed the hurry up and die scheme.

    To shorten hospital admissions, a fee a hospital receives after 100 days goes up.

    One care home has hundreds on the waiting list, not enough staff work there for everyone to be admitted.

  • Case study: Ageing population in Japan (continued)

    Advantages

    The greying yen: the elderly saved money. Now, Japanese pensioners are spending; buying luxury goods, travelling and indulging their taste for expensive food. This benefits their economy.

    In the past, their saved money would go to their children to help look after them at an old age.

    Now, children are doing less of the caring.

    Technology: Japan has a range of gadgets to support the ageing population. It allows young relatives to keep in touch with their elderly relatives.

    This includes an online kettle that automatically sends emails to up to three people when its switched on.

    Also, internet-linked sensors that can be attached to fridge doors and bathroom mats.

  • Population pyramids

    LICHIC

    Short life expectancy

    High birth rate

    Long life expectancy

    Low birth rate

  • Key wordsLife expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live

    Dependent population the people aged under 15 and over 65 that are relying on the rest of the population to work and pay taxes to ensure a good quality of life (health care, education, etc.)

    Economically Active Population people aged 15-65 who are of working age

    Economic Dependency Ratio the % of people working compared to those people who are not. A high % of people working is good for the economy.

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