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  • Analiza si Simularea ActivitatiiOperatorului Uman in Sisteme

    Tehnologice

    Laborator

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  • Introducere

    Lumea concurenial de astzi conduce la o competiie nverunat fr precedent n lansarea de noi produse mai ieftine i mai bune.

    Fabricanii sunt obligai s perfecioneze continuu metodele de concepie i de fabricaie ale produselor

    Simularea unui sistem sau a unui produs nainte de a fi fabricat sau construit permite realizarea de economii substaniale la costurile privind ncercrile, erorile de concepie i rebuturile ca i la cheltuielile care se impun la modificrile constructive cerute de beneficiar.

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  • Definiii

    Simularea reprezint un instrument de analiz avnd drept scop stabilirea efectelor schimbrilor operate asupra unui sistem existent, ct si evaluarea performanelor unor noi sisteme n astfel de circumstane.

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  • Definiii

    Simularea se definete ca fiind procesul de proiectare i realizare ale unui model, ale unui experiment n scopul nelegerii comportamentului sistemului i al evalurii unui numr mare de strategii posibile pentru funcionarea acestuia.

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  • Definiii

    Simulare este o metod prin care se permite modelarea unui sistem pe baza unui model matematic. Modelul matematic trebuie sa fie suficient de complex pentru a putea lua n calcul toate legile care guverneaz sistemul.

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  • pdfMachine Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease!

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  • Analiza ergonomica

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  • Introducere

    Pentru a putea realiza un studiu eficient asupra activitatilor umane este absolut necesar a se cunoaste toate aspectele legate de acestea.

    Omul in general participa nemijlocit la aproape toate activitatile productive, fie ele in procese automate, semiautomate sau manuale.

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  • Introducere In cazul proceselor automate participarea omului

    este indirecta, lui revenindu-i rolul de supraveghetor al procesului.

    In cadrul proceselor semiautomate, care defapt detin o pondere importanta, participarea omului este directa, el fiind factorul de decizie. Implicarea directa in proces este absolut necesara pentru o buna desfasurare a sa.

    In cadrul proceselor manuale omul reprezinta atat factorul de decizie cat si cel de executie, cantitatea de efort fizic fiind foarte mare, ceea ce isi pune amprenta asupra calitatii procesului

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  • Considerente In timpul desfasurarii activitatii manuale,

    oboseala fizic, fenomen natural, proporional cu mrimea efortului i cu durata lui, se instaleaz diminund capacitatea de efort, i prin asta volumul de munc i calitatea muncii. n cazul proceselor manuale fenomenul de oboseala se instaleaz progresiv nc de la nceperea activitii i capt niveluri importante ctre sfritul activitii.

    In procesele semiautomate gradul de oboseala, dei substanial diminuat, el contribuie n mod negativ la desfasurarea activitatii.

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  • Considerente

    Operatorul uman isi desfasoar activitatea n cadrul unui flux tehnologic bine organizat, la care o intrerupere perturbeaz buna desfasurare a procesului de realizare a produsului finit.

    Pentru o ananilza corecta trebuie stabilita in primul rand radiografia unei zile de activitate.

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  • Radiografia unei zile de activitate

    Ora 7,00 prezena la locul de munc, Ora 7,00-7,15 verificarea starii mainii,

    aprovizionarea cu piese brute, verificarea sculelor i fixarea lor n suportul mainii.

    Ora 7,15-7,20 realizarea piesei de prob i reglarea mainii

    Ora 7,20 ncepe activitatea efectiv n contul productiei

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  • Pentru determinarea vitezei de realizare a piesei ntanlim doua procede:

    Discretizarea micrilor n elemente simple i msurarea timpilor realizai

    Msurarea global a timpului, prin determinarea timpului de servire i a timpului de prelucrare, pentru o pies (la nceputul activitii). Cunoscnd cantitatea de piese prelucrate ntr-un interval de timp dat, se poate determina nstalarea oboselii n mod progresiv.

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  • Timp de deservire

    tmi-timp de servire ttp- timp total de realizare tp- timp efectiv de prelucrare

    ptpm ttt i

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  • Numar de piese realizate

    piese. unei realizareapentru total timpul- e;considerarin luat timpde intervalul -

    masurat intervalulin prelucrate piese de ideal numarul:unde

    (bucati)

    0

    tp

    i

    i

    tpi

    t

    TTTN

    t

    TN

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  • Timpul total efectiv pentru realizarea unei piese

    Ne numar efectiv de piese realizatee

    te NT

    t

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  • Timpul mediu de servire

    piesei a realizare demediu total timpul

    deservire demediu timpul

    '

    '

    te

    m

    ptem

    t

    t

    ttt

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  • Timpul final

    uiintervalul sfarsitul la piesei a realizare de totalefectiv timpul t

    ui);intervalul sfarsitul (la final deservire de timpul t

    :unde

    tf

    mf

    ptfmf ttt

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  • Gradul de oboseal Desi din formulele anterioare rezulta o variatie

    liniar a timpului de deservire, in realitate, caracteristica curbei de crestere a timului nu este liniar; ea are o variaie dup o lege greu de prins ntr-o relaie matematic, deoarece n acest caz oboseala se instaleaz n mod diferit, de la individ la individ n funcie de factorii psiho-motorii ai fiecruia i de rezistena la efort.

    Se accept variaia liniar care pune totui in evident fenomenul i permite s poat fi luat n calculul productivitii muncii.

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  • Gradul de oboseal

    Exprimarea matematic a gradului de oboseal este foarte greu de fcut, dac nu chiar imposibil prin nsui faptul c oboseala este o noiune complex care ntruchipeaz o stare de efort a organismului, generat de factori multiplii i in mare msur neelucidai.

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  • Starea de odihn

    Starea de odihn se defineste ca raportul invers la primul timp realizat, la prima manipulare.

    Valoarea obtinut este relativ, ea diferind de la caz la caz

    Stg

    m

    o

    11

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  • Starea de oboseal

    Pe parcursul activitii, valoarea timpului tm se mareste, ca dovada a instalrii obosselii ca stare de fapt. Vlaorea raportului go se micoreaz invers proportional cu valoarea lui tm, fapt ce indic o descrestere a capacittii fizice a persoanei respective.

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  • Coninut laborator1. Crearea unui model uman pentru analiza ergonomica. 2. Stabilirea miscarilor specifice unei anumite operatii3. Simularea miscarii operatorului uman4. Concluzii.

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