Contingency Diagramming 2

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  • *Causality TestStimulus TestRelated Outcomes Test60 TestResponse-Unit TestTable of Contents.Click me to begin Part 2. Or you can review by clicking a test.

  • *Sixty-Second TestDoes the outcome follow the response by more than sixty seconds?

  • * Rudolph the rat is in the Skinner Box. The trainer delivers a drop of water one day after Rudolph presses the lever.Before

    Rudolph has no drop of water How about this contingency? Will the water reinforce the lever press? Not a chance.

  • * The trainer changes the strategy; now Rudolph receives the water one hour after his lever press.Before

    Rudolph has no drop of water Is an hour delay better? Will the water reinforce the lever press? Still not a chance.

  • * A two-month old baby smiles and her father gives her attention, one day later.Before

    Baby receives no attention How about this contingency? Will the attention reinforce the smile? You guessed it, still not a chance.

  • * For an outcome to reinforce or punish a response, It must pass the 60 second test; it must follow the behavior by no more than 60 seconds

  • *This contingency is not correct.Before

    Bob does not have an A in psychology

  • *Before

    Bob does not have an A in psychology Even the quickest of teachers will not have Bobbys test gradedwithin 60 seconds of the end of studying. So the delay from the studying until he sees his A is greater than 60 seconds.

  • * Even though, when you do well on a test after studying you seem to study more in the future, this is not a direct-acting reinforcement contingency.

    Dont give up on behavior analysis yet because, later on, you will learn about analogs to basic reinforcement contingencies. But now, you have to get the basics down for basic contingencies.

  • *Click the button next to the contingency that passes the 60 second test.ABClick me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

  • *

    9. 60 TestDoes the outcome follow theresponse by more than 60 seconds?If so, find an outcome that followssooner.Click me to go back to the Question

  • *No, the token is delivered a day after the reading behavior.AB

  • *Correct.AB

  • *Click the button next to the contingency that passes the 60 second test.AB

  • *No, it takes more than 60 from the response to the outcome of a ticketAB

  • *AB

    Correct, even though he may immediately know he will have a ticket, the outcome of actually receiving the ticket follows the response by more than 60

    *Added for F02: added feedback too because high error rate on Jacis check eg.

  • *Did you see the use of future tense? Dont be caught making the mistake in thinking that it passes the test because he immediately knows he will have a ticket (he even knows it will cost money later too). Ask yourself when the observable outcome (ticket or money) is delivered, not when he knows when it will be delivered.

    *Added for F02: added feedback too because high error rate on Jacis check eg.

  • *Causality TestStimulus TestRelated Outcomes Test60 TestResponse-Unit TestTable of Contents.Question 24 & 25Questions 42-47Questions 38-41Questions 29-37Questions 26-28

  • *Related Outcomes TestIs the before condition related to the after condition?

  • * This seems like a vague concept, but a couple examples will help you understand.Before

    Teacher announces nap timeThis contingency is not correct.The before conditionis not related to the after condition.

    *Do we need to have them decide what the important outcome is before they can determine related outcomes? Yes, but for our test, for now we are just training them to discriminate related and unrelated outcomes. Well have to deal with this in a later chapter.

  • * While this incorrect example seems like a likely order of events, it is not a correct contingency.Before

    Teacher announces nap time A common error students make when writing contingencies is to simply specify three events that occur over a period of time.

  • * While this incorrect example seems like a likely order of events, it is not a correct contingency.Before

    Teacher announces nap time Just because youve specified three conditions that occur in order, it does not necessarily represent a contingency.

  • *BeforeTeacher announces nap timeThis contingency is correct.The before conditionis related to the after condition.Bob has all of his tokens

  • *BeforeTeacher announces nap timeBob has all of his tokens This is a sequence of conditions, but the before helps reflect the change caused by the behavior.

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Mom makes liver for dinner

    *SUM02 Group: move options up bc no is too close to PowerPoints slide show menu.

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Mom makes liver for dinner

    No, the before condition of mom making dinner is not related to the after of Bob losing his allowance

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Mom makes liver for dinner

    Right! The before condition is not related to the after condition.

  • *Before

    Mom makes liver for dinnerThis contingency is not correct.The before conditionis not related to the after condition.

  • *BeforeMom makes liver for dinnerMom will pay Bobs allowanceThis contingency is correct.The before conditionis related to the after condition.

  • *BeforeMom makes liver fordinnerMom will pay Bobs allowance Now it is clear Bobby would have received his allowance, if he hadnt fed his dinner to the dog.

  • * When we talk about the outcomes of a behavioral contingency being related, we mean that the before condition is somehow changed by the behavior, resulting in the after condition.

    The behavior causes the after condition (the consequences) and the before condition can typically, but loosely, be considered the opposite of that after condition.

  • * The before condition is the way things would have remained had the particular behavior not occurred. It is not simply anything that occurred right before the behavior; it must somehow be related to the after condition.

  • * Heres another illustration. Bobby Brat wants some of Nice Normans candy, so he says give me your lunch.

  • * When Norman refuses, Bobby immediately picks up Normans lunch boxand throws it.

  • *

    Norman cries, and Bobby picks up all the candy.

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Bobby wants Normans candy

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Bobby wants Normans candyWanting candy is not the opposite of having candy. Not wanting could be the opposite of wanting (but we make little use of the term wants as youll see later in the course).

  • *Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites?A. YesB. NoBefore

    Bobby wants Normans candyRight, wanting candy is not the opposite of having candy. Not wanting could be the opposite of wanting (but we make little use of the term wants as youll see later in the course).

  • *Before

    ?Bobby demands candyBobby has no candyNorman refuses to give candy

    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

    *Was 37

  • *

    2. Related Outcomes TestIs the before condition related tothe after condition? (Often therelationship is one of opposites.) If not, change one or both of theconditions.Click me to go back to the QuestionClick me to go back to the Question

  • *Before

    ?Bobby demands candyBobby has no candyNorman refuses to give candy

    No, remember that the before and after conditions are usually opposites.

  • *Before

    ?Bobby demands candyBobby has no candyNorman refuses to give candy

    No, remember that the before and after conditions are usually opposites.

  • *Before

    Bobby has no candyBobby demands candyBobby has no candyNorman refuses to give candy

    Yes, has no candy reflects the change to the after condition. And, Bobby demands candy is not the opposite of Bobby has candy.

  • *Response-Unit TestAre there any interruptions ofgreater than 60 seconds during theresponse?

  • * Jaci has an entire research paper to write and she finishes the entire paper in three days of hard work.

    *verbatim

  • *What do you think of this contingency?Before

    Jaci has no sense of accomplishment

    *verbatim

  • * Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds?Before

    Jaci has no sense of accomplishmentA. YesB. No

    *Was 38

  • *Before

    Jaci has no sense of accomplishmentA. YesB. No Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds?No, even though we may say someone writes for three days does that really mean they continually wrote without any interruptions?Of course not.

    *verbatim

  • *Before

    Jaci has no sense of accomplishmentA. YesB. No

    Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds?Correct!, even though we may say someone writes for three days we surely wouldnt mean it is one continuous reinforceable response-unit.

    *verbatim

  • *Before

    Jaci has no sense of accomplishmen