Diagramming Begins!

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Diagramming Begins!. What is diagramming? Sentence analysis Shows relationship of each word to the rest of the sentence Think of frog dissection. First…. We already know: Every sentence MUST have a subject and verb Subject=noun Verb=words of doing or being - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Diagramming Begins!What is diagramming?Sentence analysisShows relationship of each word to the rest of the sentenceThink of frog dissection

  • FirstWe already know:Every sentence MUST have a subject and verbSubject=nounVerb=words of doing or beingStart by asking: WHO or WHAT is DOING or BEING something?Now, draw a horizontal line and divide it with a vertical one:

  • NextPlace the subject (noun) and all the things that go with it on the left sidePlace the predicate (main verb) and all things that go with it on the right side

    Subject Predicate

  • See how this basic sentence is diagrammed:

    Rex barks.

    RexBarksSubject Predicate Who or what?Does or is what?

  • Now You Try:

    Rex whined.

    Subject Predicate Who or what?Does or is what?

  • Good. Now Try again:Rex was panting.(Hint: be sure to include all parts of the verb.)

    Subject Predicate Who or what?Does or is what?

  • Diagram these sentences. Remember, subject on the left, predicate on the right.

    Rex might have been scratching.Rex did bark.

    Subject Predicate Who or what?Does or is what?

  • Diagram these sentences. Remember, subject on the left, predicate on the right.

    Rex should have howled.Rex could have been growling. Subject Predicate Does or is what?

  • Diagram these sentences. Remember, subject on the left, predicate on the right.

    Rex must have run.Rex had slept.

  • Diagram these sentences.

    Rex may be eating.Rex will have been digging.

  • What Have We Learned So Far?

    SOMEBODYDOES or ISOrSOMETHINGSOMETHING

  • Now, what if we want to make our sentences pretty?

    birdssing

    What if we want to know:Which ones?Where?What kinds?When?Whose?Why?How many?How?

  • Since ADJECTIVESAnswer the ADJECTIVE QUESTIONS about NOUNS, they are diagrammed on slanting lines under the noun they modify:

    birdssing

    How many birds? Three = ADJthree

  • Now notice this sentence:Those three blue birds sing.Same subject and verb,

    birdssing

    But the noun is modified by three words that answer three different ADJECTIVE QUESTIONS.

    Thosethreeblue

  • How about this?The birds sing sorrowfully.

  • Good:Sorrowfully answers the ADVERB QUESTION: HOW?birdssing

    So, words that answer ADVERB QUESTIONS are placed on a slanted line under the VERBthesorrowfully

  • Notice that,While an adjective usually goes in front of its noun, an adverb can hop about in the sentence:Sorrowfully the birds sing.The birds sorrowfully sing.The birds sing sorrowfully.

    All three sentences are diagrammed in exactly the same way.

  • Diagram these sentences. Put adjectives under nouns, adverbs under verbs. Write what question each modifier answers.

    Poor Rex whined pitifully.That tired Rex was panting furiously.Yesterday Rex might have been scratching.Rex did really bark.Why did Rex really bark?Why should that naughty Rex have howled so dismally?

  • Ah-ha! A few tricks:

    #5, the questionturn it into a declarative sentenceit will be diagrammed the same as #4.#6 why doesnt answer an adverb question; it is an adverb question. Diagram it just as you would an adverb.#6Where did you put so? That was really sneaky! It answers the ADVERB QUESTION: HOW. But is does not modify the verb howled. (How did he howl? So? No.) No, it answers the question how about dismally. (How dismally? So dismally.) Remember that adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.)

  • SoRex should have howledthatnaughtywhydismallyso

  • Review and Practice:What have we learned so far?In a sentence, somebody or something does or is something.An adjective answers the questionsWhich oneWhat kindWhoseHow manyAn adverb answers the questionsWhereWhenWhyHow

  • Diagram these sentences. Be sure to find all helping verbs, and be careful that each modifier is attached to the word it modifies.

    Harry has been listening carefully.Harry has not been listening carefully. (Hint: not answers how Harry listens.)

  • Diagram these sentences. Be sure to find all helping verbs, and be careful that each modifier is attached to the word it modifies.

    Lucys blue sweater was thrown downstairs.That sweet old lady might have been sleeping there.

  • Diagram these sentences. Be sure to find all helping verbs, and be careful that each modifier is attached to the word it modifies.

    Suddenly the booming thunder echoed hollowly.The big bad wolf huffed importantly.

  • Diagram these sentences. Be sure to find all helping verbs, and be careful that each modifier is attached to the word it modifies.

    That child might be crying now.How they must have been laughing!

  • Diagram these sentences. Be sure to find all helping verbs, and be careful that each modifier is attached to the word it modifies.

    Away flew the silly geese. (Careful! What IS the verb? What or who DID the verb?)My sister may play here.

    ** More practice for homework!

  • And Now: Diagramming Prepositional Phrases

    Review: what is a prepositional phrase? What part(s) of speech are associated with a prepositional phrase?

    Identify the prepositional phrase(s) in this sentence: The squirrel ran up the tree, down the tree, behind the tree, through the tree, under the tree, around the tree and into the tree.

  • Notice:The squirrel ran up the tree, down the tree, behind the tree, through the tree, under the tree, around the tree and into the tree.

    All the underlined words connect a noun, tree, with the rest of the sentence, in this case through the verb ran. Notice that each propositional phrase (phrase means the preposition, its object (the noun it connects) and any modifiers of the object)) answers the questions where or possibly how. These are our old friends, the ADVERB QUESTIONS, and since the phrase answers where and how the verb was carried out, we know these phrases are acting as ADVERBS modifying the verb.

  • How to diagram a prepositional phrase:upthetreeNotice that the preposition goes on a slanting line just below the word the phrase modified, the object goes on a horizontal line connected to the preposition line, and any modifier of the noun object goes under it. In these phrases the word the is an adjective telling which tree. Even though our word order goes: preposition, adjective, noun object, we diagram it: preposition, noun object, adjective, because we are showing the importance of words.

  • upransquirreldown tree the the the the tree tree tree through into Its pretty, no? You too, can have this much linear fun!

  • Lets diagram these prepositional phrases used as ADJECTIVES:

    The boy with the red hat was singing.A basket of food appeared.That cat of Lucys scratches.An amount of six dollars was owed.

  • Now, a trick:Diagram this sentence:

    The bird in the tree sang happily.

    **Remember to figure out which question is being asked!**

  • Okay, so, you found the prepositional phrase. You asked, What question does it answer? and you said Where, didnt you? What the prepositional phrase in the tree really tells is which one.

    It does this by telling where. Now think about that. We often tell which one about a noun in this way. Which dress will you wear? The one on the bed.

    This is an example of how you must always THINK about what words and word groups are really doing. In most cases, word order will be a clue as to what a prepositional phrase modifies.

  • It may be well to notice that, in our speech patterns, while one-word adjectives generally go in front of the nouns they modify, prepositional phrases used as adjectives go after their nouns.

    The big bad wolf; the bottle (of milk).

  • A final example to study:

    The horse with the star on its forehead galloped through the pasture with angry snortings at its pursuers.

  • The horse with the star on its forehead galloped through the pasture with angry snortings at its pursuers.

    horsegallopedthewiththroughwithstarthepasturestheonforeheaditssnortingsangryatitspursuersStudy the placement of all phrases. Notice on its forehead modifies the noun star. (On its forehead does NOT describe this horse!) Nor did it gallop at its pursuers. that tells about its snortings. Any noun, not just the sujbect noun, may be modified by a prepositional phrase.

  • Review and PracticeEach word in a sentence is one of the eight parts of speech, depending on the job it does in the sentence.Groups of words, called phrase, may act as single parts of speech.A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, a noun object, and perhaps some adjectives modifying the object.A preposition connects the object with the rest of the sentence and show the object is related to the sentence. Usually the relationship has to do with direction, space, time, possession, etc. Prepositional phrases usually act as ADJECTIVES or ADVERBS. The whole phrase will answer one of the ADJECTIVE or ADVERB questions.We diagram a prepositional phrase under the word it modifies. The object goes on a horizontal line connected to the preposition. Any modifiers of the object go under the object.

  • Diagram these sentences after you have found each prepositional phrase and asked yourself, What question does it answer?

    The lamp with the crooked shade leaned against the wall.The carefree moth with the black spots o nits wings lunged happily toward the flames of the sooty lantern.

  • Diagram these sentences after you have found each prepositional phrase and asked yourself, What question does it answer?