Jat Chapter 11

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2. Chapter Introduction Section 1The Rise of Islam Section 2Islamic EmpiresSection 3Muslim Ways of Life Reading Review Chapter Assessment Islamic Civilization Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. 3. Chapter Objectives

  • Explain how the religion of Islam began and grew.
  • Discuss how Muslims spread their faith throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
  • Summarize the achievements of the Muslim empires.

Islamic Civilization 4. Islamic Civilization 5. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the life of the prophet Muhammad and the rise of the religion he founded, Islam, in the Arabian desert. The Rise of Islam 7. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Rise of Islam

  • The deserts, coastline, and oases of Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life.
  • The prophet Muhammad brought the message of Islam to the people of Arabia.
  • The Quran provided guidelines for Muslims lives and the governments of Muslim states.

8. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Locating Places

  • Makkah (MAKkuh)
  • Kaaba (KAHbuh)
  • Madinah (mahDEEnah)

The Rise of Islam

  • Bedouin (BEH d uhwuhn)
  • Muhammad (mohHAHmuhd)

Meeting People 9. Get Ready to Read(cont.) The Rise of Islam Building Your Vocabulary

  • oasis (ohAYsuhs)
  • sheikh (SHAYK)
  • caravan (KARuh VAN )
  • Quran (kohRAHN)

Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 372 of your textbook to identify the Five Pillars of faith. 10. Daily Life in Early Arabia

  • Much of the Arabian peninsula is desert, although there are mountains in the southwest.
  • Early Arabs formed intofamily clans and tribes that were headed by asheikh.

(pages 373 374)

  • Oasesare green areasfed by an undergroundwater source.
  • TheBedouinswere desert herders who traveled from oasis to oasis to water their animals.

The Rise of Islam 11. Daily Life in Early Arabia(cont.)

  • Many Arabs lived in villages near oases.
  • Caravansare groups of traveling merchants and animals.
  • Merchants who transported goods across the deserts formed caravans to protect themselves from Bedouin attacks.
  • Trade grew, and merchants founded towns along trade routes.

The Rise of Islam (pages 373 374) 12. Daily Life in Early Arabia(cont.)

  • Makkah was the largest and wealthiest trade center and is an important religious site visited by pilgrims.
  • In the middle of Makkah is the Kaaba, a low square building surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses.
  • Inside is a large stone Arabs believe came from heaven.

The Rise of Islam

  • Arabs consider Allah the creator.

(pages 373 374) 13. How did Makkah evolve as the largest trade city? Makkah was a crossroads for merchant traders, and it was an important holy site for Arab pilgrims. The Rise of Islam 14. Muhammad:Islams Prophet

  • Muhammad was accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia .

(pages 374 375)

  • Muhammad was dissatisfied with the ways of his town leaders and went into the hills to meditate.
  • There he was visited by an angel who told him to preach Islam.
  • Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one God, Allah.

The Rise of Islam 15. Muhammad:Islams Prophet(cont.)

  • Muhammad also preached that all people are equal and that the rich should share their wealth with the poor .
  • Many poor people began accepting Muhammads message and became Muslims, or followers of Islam.
  • Wealthy people did not like Muhammads message, and they made life difficult for Muhammad and his followers.

The Rise of Islam (pages 374 375) 16. Muhammad:Islams Prophet(cont.)

  • Muhammad and his followers left Makkah for Yathrib .
  • This journey is known as the Hijrah.

The Rise of Islam (pages 374 375) 17. Muhammad:Islams Prophet(cont.)

  • Yathrib welcomed the Muslims and renamed their city Madinah .
  • Muhammad used the laws he believed he had received from God to rule the people of Madinah, creating an Islamic state, or a government that uses its political power to uphold Islam.

The Rise of Islam

  • Muhammad built an army to defend his new government .

(pages 374 375) 18. Muhammad:Islams Prophet(cont.)

  • The army conquered Makkah, and Muhammad returned to the holy city .

The Rise of Islam

  • Muhammad died two years after his return.

(pages 374 375) 19. Why did wealthy merchants and religious leaders dislike Muhammad? Muhammads message appealed to poor people.If poor people became dissatisfied with their leaders, they might rebel.This threatened the power of the wealthy people. The Rise of Islam 20. Islams Teachings

  • Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have some beliefs in common.

(pages 377 378)

  • TheQuranis the holy book of Islam.

The Rise of Islam

  • Many moral teachings in theQuran are similar to those inthe Bible.
  • Many rules in the Quran applyto Muslims daily life.

21. Islams Teachings(cont.)

  • The Five Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship, are to be followed by all Muslims.
  • The Five Pillars are belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage.

The Rise of Islam

  • The Sunna is the name given to customs based on Muhammads words and deeds.
  • Islams law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna.

(pages 377 378) 22. What moral teachings do the Bible and the Quran share? The Quran and the Bible both demand honesty, fairness, kindness to neighbors, honoring of parents, and giving to the poor.They both also prohibit murder, lying, and stealing. The Rise of Islam 23. What are oases, and why were they important to Arabs? Oases are green areas in the desert fed by underground water, that supplied water for Arab herders. The Rise of Islam 24. The Quran prohibits murder, lying, gambling, stealing, eating pork, and drinking liquor. Name some activities the Quran prohibits. The Rise of Islam 25. Conclude Why do you think Muhammads teachings were popular with poorer people? Because Muhammad taught that goods should be shared, the poorer people realized the possibility of benefiting through charity. The Rise of Islam 26. Analyze How did Muhammad link religion and government? Muhammad applied gods laws to all areas of life and used these laws to settle disputes among the people. The Rise of Islam 27. Expository Writing Suppose you are living in Makkah at the time Muhammad began preaching.Write a short newspaper article that describes Muhammads teachings and the reactions of people in the city to those teachings. Answers will vary but should include his teachings and peoples reactions. The Rise of Islam 28. Compare Islams origins to the beginnings of another religion you have studied. The Rise of Islam 29. 30. Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section highlights the spread of Islamic empires into areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. 31. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Islamic Empires

  • While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights .
  • Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade .
  • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe .

32. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Locating Places

  • Damascus (duhMASkuhs)

Islamic Empires

  • Indonesia ( IHN duhNEEzhuh)
  • Timbuktu ( TIHM BUHK TOO)
  • Baghdad (BAGdad)
  • Delhi (DEHlee)

33. Get Ready to Read(cont.)

  • Umayyad (ooMYuhd)

Islamic Empires

  • Sufi (SOOfee)
  • Abbasid (uhBAsuhd)
  • Suleiman I (SOOlay MAHN )
  • Mogul (MOHguhl)

Meeting People

  • Akbar (AKbuhr)

34. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Building Your Vocabulary

  • caliph (KAYluhf)
  • Shiite (SHEEeyet)
  • Sunni (SUnee)
  • sultan (SUHLtuhn)

Islamic Empires 35. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Reading Strategy Cause and EffectCreate a diagram like the one on page 379 of your textbook, to show why the Arabs were successful conquerors. Islamic Empires 36. The Spread of Islam

  • The first four caliphs to rule from Madinah all had a personal connection with Muhammad .
  • The Umayyad caliphs made their capital the city of Damascus .
  • Muhammads successor was called acaliph,or successor to the Messenger of God .

(pages 380 381)

  • Islam spread during their rule.

Islamic Empires 37. The Spread of Islam(cont.)

  • It was successful for several reasons .
  • Arabs were good horsemen who were good with a sword and inspired by their religion .
  • The Islamic state soon became a great empire .
  • Muslims believed people who died fighting for Islam would go to paradise.

Islamic Empires (pages 380 381) 38. The Spread of Islam(cont.)

  • Many conquered people adopted the Muslim customs .