Jat Chapter 08

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2. Chapter Introduction Section 1Romes Beginning Section 2The Roman Republic Section 3The Fall of the Republic Section 4The Early Empire Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Rise of Rome Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. 3. Chapter Objectives

  • Explain how Rome became a republic.
  • Describe how Rome gained control of the Mediterranean region.
  • Explain how the failure of the republic led to the creation of a Roman Empire.

T he Rise of Rome

  • Relate how military and political reforms made Rome rich and prosperous.

4. TheRise of Rome 5. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the beginnings of Rome, the founding of the republic, and early conquests. Romes Beginnings 7. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Romes Beginnings

  • Geography played an important role in the rise of Roman civilization .
  • The Romans created a republic and conquered Italy.By treating people fairly, they built Rome from a small city into a great power.

8. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Locating Places

  • Sicily (SIHsuhlee)
  • Apennines(Apuh NYNZ )
  • Latium (LAYsheeuhm)
  • Tiber River(TYbuhr)
  • Etruria(ihTRUReeuh)

Romes Beginnings 9. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Meeting People

  • Romulus (RAHMyuhluhs)
  • Remus (REEmuhs)
  • Aeneas (ihNEEuhs)
  • Latins (LAtuhnz)
  • Etruscans (ihTRUHSkuhnz)
  • Tarquins (TAHRkwihnz)

Romes Beginnings 10. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Building Your Vocabulary

  • republic (rih PUH blihk)
  • legion (LEEjuhn)

Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 262 of your textbook to show how the Etruscans affected the development of Rome. Romes Beginnings 11. The Origins of Rome

  • Italy is a boot-shaped country in the Mediterranean .
  • The Alps are mountains at Italys northern border, and the Apennines is a mountain range that extends through Italy from north to south.

(pages 263 265)

  • The toe of the boot points toward the island of Sicily.
  • Italys terrain was easier to farm than the terrain of Greece, so Italy could support more people .

Romes Beginnings 12. The Origins of Rome(cont.)

  • The Latins built the city of Rome on the plain of Latium .
  • Rome was located in central Italy on the Tiber River.

Romes Beginnings

  • Two stories tell about Romes beginning:the legend of Remus and Romulus and the tale of Aeneas and his Trojan followers .

(pages 263 265) 13. The Origins of Rome(cont.)

  • The Greeks and the Etruscans influenced the Roman way of life .
  • The Etruscans were skilled metal workers who helped shape Roman civilization.

Romes Beginnings

  • The Etruscan army was themodel for the Roman army .

(pages 263 265) 14. How did the Greeks influence the Romans? The Greeks taught the Romans how to grow grapes and olives.They also taught the Romans their alphabet.Roman architecture, sculpture, and literature was also modeled after the Greeks. Romes Beginnings 15. The Birth of a Republic

  • The Tarquins were leaders of the Etruscan-ruled Rome .

(pages 265 267)

  • After 100 years under the Tarquins, the Romans rebelled against Etruscan rulers.
  • The Romans established a republic .
  • In arepublic,the leader is not a king or queen but someone voted into office by citizens.

Romes Beginnings 16. The Birth of a Republic(cont.)

  • Rome had a large,powerful army made up of excellent, disciplined soldiers .
  • Roads connected all of Romes military settlements.

Romes Beginnings (pages 265 267) 17. The Birth of a Republic(cont.)

  • The Roman Confederation gave full citizenship to some people, who could vote and serve in government .
  • Romans gave others the status of allies, which meant they could rule their own local affairs.

Romes Beginnings (pages 265 267) 18. What was the benefit of organizing soldiers into legions? Smaller bands of troops were easier to maneuver than one large army. Romes Beginnings 19. Where did the Greeks live in Italy, and how did they influence Roman civilization? Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily.They passed on farming methods, sculpture, literature, and an alphabet. Romes Beginnings 20. Describe the two legends that tell of the founding of Rome.Then describe how and when Rome was actually founded. The legend of Romulus and Remus and the Aeneas story.Rome was probably founded by Latins in c. 700sB.C. Romes Beginnings 21. Summarize Describe the Roman conquest of Italy. Rome defeated remaining Latins and then Etruscans and Greeks. Romes Beginnings 22. Compare and Contrast How did geography affect the development of civilization in Greece and Italy? Italy is less rugged than Greece, so people are not separated from each other.Italys better farmland supports more people. Romes Beginnings 23. Expository Writing Write a short essay discussing the reasons Rome was so successful in its conquest of Italy. Answers will vary. Romes Beginnings 24. Identify the rights held by Roman citizens. Romes Beginnings 25. 26. The Roman Republic Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the Roman Republics political development and the defeat of Carthage. 27. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Roman Republic

  • Rome slowly destroyed the Carthaginian Empire and took control of the entire Mediterranean region.
  • Romes republic was shaped by a struggle between wealthy landowners and regular citizens as it gradually expanded the right to vote.

28. Get Ready to Read(cont.)

  • Cincinnatus ( SIHN suhNAtuhs)

Meeting People

  • Hannibal (HAnuhbuhl)
  • Scipio (SIHpee OH )

The Roman Republic

  • Carthage (KAHRthihj)

Locating Places

  • Cannae (KAnee)
  • Zama (ZAYmuh)

29. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Building Your Vocabulary

  • patrician (puhTRIHshuhn)
  • plebeian (plihBEEuhn)
  • consul (KAHNsuhl)
  • praetor (PREEtuhr)
  • veto (VEEtoh)

The Roman Republic

  • dictator (DIHKTAYtuhr)

30. Get Ready to Read(cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing InformationCreate a chart like the one on page 268 of your textbook.List the government officials and legislative bodies of the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic 31. Romes Government

  • Top government officials were calledconsuls .
  • Another important group of officials were thepraetors.
  • Patriciansandplebeianswere the two classes of people in Rome.

(pages 269 273) The Roman Republic

  • The Senate was the most important lawmaking body.

32. Romes Government(cont.)

  • Plebeians challenged the class system by going on strike.
  • The Romans then allowed the plebeians to set up their own legislative group called the Council of the Plebes.
  • Another important legislative body was the Assembly of Centuries.

The Roman Republic

  • Today, adictatoris an oppressive ruler.

(pages 269 273) 33. Romes Government(cont.)

  • Cincinnatus, the best-known early Roman dictator, led an army of men to defeat a powerful enemy.
  • The Twelve Tables were Romes first code of laws.
  • In the Roman Republic, a dictator was a person who served the people and ruled temporarily during emergencies.

The Roman Republic

  • They were the basis of all future Roman laws.

(pages 269 273) 34. Romes Government(cont.)

  • The rule of law is the idea that laws should apply to everyone equally.
  • The Law of Nations was created to address issues of conquered peoples.

The Roman Republic (pages 269 273) 35. How are modern dictators different from the Roman dictators? Roman dictators were appointed by the Senate in times of great danger.When the danger was over, the dictators gave up their power.Modern dictators often seize power, frequently using military force.They do not often give up their power voluntarily, instead ruling until they are removed from office by force. The Roman Republic 36. Rome Expands

  • Carthage, a state on the coast of North Africa, was a powerful enemy of Rome.

(pages 274 276)

  • The First Punic War began as a dispute between Rome and Carthage over the island of Sicily.
  • The war continued for 20 years before Rome won.

The Roman Republic

  • The Second Punic War began after Carthage expanded into Spain.

37. Rome Expands(cont.)

  • Rome helped the people of Spain rebel.
  • Hannibal was a great Carthaginian general who fought in the Second Punic War.
  • At the Battle of Cannae, Hannibals forces overpowered the Romans.

The Roman Republic

  • The Roman general Scipio led his forces to defeat the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama.

(pages 274 276) 38. Rome Expands(