World Englishes

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World EnglishesNov 5, 2008

Activity 1Listen to the following speakers and rate them on the characteristics provided on the handout

What does World Englishes mean?

The Expanding Circle

China, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Russia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Caribbean Islands (EFL)

The Outer Circle Bangladesh, India Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia (ESL)

The Inner Circle USA UK Canada Australia New Zealand

Krachus Three Concentric Circles

how many Englishes are there?

MacArthurs circle of English

If we include pidgins and creoles . . .

Is this English? Orayt, mif la i go go lang salwater, lukawtim fish, naw win i kem, naw mif la i go alebawt long kinu, naw bigf la win i kem naw, mif la go, no kachim ni ples i kwaytf la. Very well. We kept going on the sea, hunting fish, and a wind arose; now we were going in canoes, and an immense wind arose, and we were thrown around and ran very fast (before the wind).

Neo-Solomonic (Solomon Islands)

The Lords Prayer (from Hawaiian Pidgin Bible)God, you our Fadda. You stay inside da sky. We like all da peopo know fo shua how you stay, An dat you stay good an spesho, An we like dem give you plenny respeck. We like you come King fo everybody now. We like everybody make jalike you like, Ova hea inside da world, Jalike da angel guys up inside da sky make jalike you like. Give us da food we need fo today an every day. Hemmo our shame, an let us go Fo all da kine bad stuff we do to you, Jalike us guys let da odda guys go awready, And we no stay huhu wit dem Fo all da kine bad stuff dey do to us. No let us get chance fo do bad kine stuff, But take us outa dea, so da Bad Guy no can hurt us. Cuz you our King. You get da real power, An you stay awesome foeva. Dass it!

what kinds of questions do researchers ask about world Englishes?1. how are different world Englishes (socially) perceived? 2. how recognizable are different world Englishes? what factors influence this recognition? 3. how is English used in the world? how should it be used? (in part, code-switching and language policy) 4. how do world Englishes differ from each other or how are they similar (pidgins and creoles)?

1. how are different world Englishes (socially) perceived?a. Matched Guise Test Lambert, et al. (1960): Asked native English and French speakers to listen to people speaking French and English and to judge the people on various personality characteristics:1 2 Friendly Dependable Stupid 3 4 5 6 Cold Lazy Intelligent

In reality the exact same speaker spoke in English and French Findings? Both English and French speakers gave more positive characteristics to English than French speakers

b. Real world applications

Listener response surveyLooked at British listeners perceptions of 3 British (RP, West Yorkshire, Birmingham) and 3 American (Network, Alabama, NYC) varieties in terms of status and solidarity characteristics

Hiraga (2005)Looked at British listeners perceptions of 3 British (RP, West Yorkshire, Birmingham) and 3 American (Network, Alabama, NYC) varieties in terms of status and solidarity characteristics

British attitudes vs. American attitudesBritish (Hiraga, 2005)

AmericanSolidarity Status Overall

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RP Alabama West Yorkshire Birmingham Network American New York

1.RP 2.Birmingham 3.Network 4.NYC 5.West Yorkshire 6.Alabama

RP Network Birmingham West Yorkshire New York Alabama

2. how recognizable are different world Englishes? what factors influence this recognition? audio clips were taken from the speech accent archive created by Steven H. Weinberger of George Mason University. http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/

1.2.

3.4.

9 tracks

(Australia, England, India, Ireland, Kenya, New York, Scotland, South Africa, Southern U.S.)

audio clips were taken from the speech accent archive created by Steven H. Weinberger of George Mason University. http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/

1. South Africa2. Georgia

3. Scotland4. Ireland

correct dialect identification by native English speakers100

92

90 75 61 59 51 41

90

80

70

60

50

40

32

30

20

10

8Southe rn US England Ne w York Aus tralia Scotland India Ire land Ke nya South African

0

type of incorrect answers given Southern US (11): Midwest US 3, Utah 3, West Coast US 2, Rural US 2, England. England (14): Australia 3, South Africa 3, Northeastern US 2, Canada, France, Scotland, United States, Caribbean, New Zealand. New York (35) : Midwest US 11, West Coast US 9, Canada 6, Northern US 5, Australia 2, Southwestern US 2. Australia (54): England 17, New Zealand 8, Northeastern US 8, South Africa 6, Ireland 5, Southern US 3, Nothing 2, Canada 2, Midwest US 2, Northwestern US 2, United States 2, Wales 2, Scotland, Italy, Ukraine. Scotland (58): Ireland 38, Great Britain 6, Australia 4, New Zealand 3, Wales 2, Southern US 2, Midwest US, Scandinavia, West Indies.

India (68): Africa 12, Caribbean 10, South Africa 9, Singapore 3, Nothing 3, Southern US 3, Middle East 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Asia 2, Zimbabwe 2, Brazil 2, Western US 2, Spain, Australia, West Africa, Egypt, Canada, Algeria, New Zealand, South America, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Mexico, Fiji, Iraq, Israel, Afghanistan. Ireland (82): Scotland 29, Canada 15, England 10, Eastern US 6, Australia 5, New Zealand 4, South Africa 2, United States 2, Western US 2, Nothing, Argentina, India, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Wales. Africa (Kenya) (95): South Africa 21, Caribbean 13, India 9, Nothing 6, Middle East 5, Canada 4, Germany 3, East Europe 2, France 2, Western US 2, Southern US 2, New Zealand 2, Northeast US 2, Midwest US 2, Hawaii 2, Hong Kong 2, Iraq 2, Ireland 2, Mexico 2, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Spain, United States, Wales, Australia, England. South Africa (129): Australia 44, Great Britain 36, New Zealand 19, Northeastern US 6, Scotland 4, Ireland 3, Wales 2, Africa 2, India 2, Nothing, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Hawaii, Jamaica, Midwest US, Northern Europe, Panama, Philippines.

type of incorrect responses100 90

80

70

60

50

40

2830 20

30 16 20

155Southe rn US

10

9England

6Ne w York Aus tralia

9

0 Scotland India Ire land Ke nya South African

correct dialect identification by nonnative speakers100 90 80

70

65

60

48

50

40

30

22

15

17

13 4 6 0South African

20

10

0 Southe rn US England Ne w York Aus tralia Scotland India Ire land Ke nya

correct dialect identification by native (blue) and non-native (light blue) speakers100

92

90 75 65 61 59 51 41

90

80

70

60

48

50

40

30

22

32

20

15

17 13 4 6 0Ire land Ke nya South African

10

8

0 Southe rn US England Ne w York Aus tralia Scotland India

3. how is English used in the world?English used to make something look more fashionable, modern, expensive Example: A is for Ambrella The very best stationery for people who get excited when they see English all over everything

Use of English between two speakers, neither of whom speak English as a native language

Examples

Examples

Example study: Advertising and World Englishes

Example study: Advertising and World Englishes

Example study: Advertising and World Englishes

Example study: Codeswitching/mixing/nativized EnglishWe, that is the Matsumoto family, live in a manshon, too. At this moment, I am watching beisu-booru on terebi. My wife is out shopping at a depaato, and later she will stop at a suupaa to get pooku choppu, pan, bataa, jamu, and perhaps some sooseji for breakfast. My daughter has gone to the byuuchii saron to get a paama. Oh the terehon is ringing. We cannot live a day in Japan today without these loan words. Language purists lament the fact. The nationalists would wipe out all foreign-sounding words from our vocabulary. But where will they be without terebi, rajio, tabako, biiru, and terehon? Matsumoto, 1976

Over 10% of the words in Japanese are English borrowings

Examples of Code Mixing1. Es un . . . uh. . .. factory worker 2. Conductor (shouting in Swahili): Fugueni madirisha! 'Open the windows!' Passenger (well-dressed) : That is your job. 3. Vena aca. (child doesnt listen) Ven aca. (child doesnt listen) Come here now. 4. I went to Agra, to maine apne bhaiko bola ki (then I said to my brother that) if you come to Delhi you must buy some lunch. 5. A: Well, I'm glad I met you. B: Andale pues. And do come again, mmh? 6. We've got all . . . all these kids here right now. Los que estan ya criados aqui, no los que estan recien venidos de Mexico (those that have been born here, not the ones that have just arrived from Mexico). They all understood English

ResultsTable 1. Proportion of intra-sentential and inter-sentential mixes identified in English and Spanish samples collected during years 1 and 2.

English samples Inter-sentential Year 1 Year 2 Intra-sentential Year 1 Year 2

Spanish samples

Total

37% .12%

13.5% 22%

25.25% 11.06%

3.68% 1.5%

2.5% 5.88%

3.09% 3.69%

4. how do world Englishes differ from each other or how are they similar (pidgins and creoles)?Hawaiian Pidgin I. Phonological a. Spelling b. Simplification and reduction of consonant cl