World English Vs. World EnglishesWednesday Sharing SessionDecember 2, 2009Presented by: Sonny Soentanto
Natalie Knuth / Teresa Matthe
*Definitions & ExplanationsWorld English: is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English or General English. Sometimes "international English" and the related terms above refer to a desired standardisation, i.e. Standard English; however, there is no consensus on the path to this goal.World Englishes: Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history. ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, 2007, p. 234)
Why English Has Become a World LanguageHistorical reasons: spread through trade and colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination.Educational reasons: English is much more developed than other languages.Political reasons: Language of super power and language of political institutionIntellectual reasons: scientific, technological, and academic info available in EnglishEconomic reasons: working language in mncsPractical reasons: international air traffic, emergency servicesEntertainment reasons: language of popular music, cultures, broadcasting*
*World (New) EnglishesForms of New Englishes not uniform in characteristics, but share criteria:
developed through education system
developed in an area where English was not spoken by majority of people
has become nativised by own language features ( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p 22/23)
*May 2007May 2007The Concepts of ENL, ESL & EFLThree distinct forms of users
increasingly difficult to classify speakers belonging to only one group
but important starting point to understand distinctions and spread of New & World Englishes
*ENLEnglish as Native Languagelanguage of people born &raised in countries, where English is (historically) the first languagecountries like: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand-> as traditional, cultural & linguistic basesaround 350 million ENL speakers around the worldNot one single variety, differences in territories (e.g. UK and US)Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle
*ESLEnglish as Second Languagepeople living in territories like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and SingaporeCountries former colonised by British->English gained importance in administrationEnglish serves official purpose within the country in law, education and government also worldwide around 350 million speakersNorm developing and labeled as non-standard, illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half baked
*EFLEnglish as Foreign LanguageFor speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in own country
Historically learned for communication with ENL speakers
Nowadays used for communication with other non-native speakersNorm dependent and used in Expanding Circle
Example for EFL: Indonesia
*Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishesmost influential model describing spread of World English
Connected to the ENL, ESL, EFL concepts
Kachru divides World Englishes in three concentric circles
*Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes The Inner CircleCountries: UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand-> ENL countries
Spoken English as norm providing
English-language standards determined by ENL speakers (Inner Circle)
*Kachrus three cirlce model of world EnglishesThe Outer CircleCountries: Bangladesh, Singapore, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Malaysia,-> ESL countries
Spoken English regarded as norm developing (developing own standards)
*Kachrus three cirlce model of world EnglishesThe Expanding CircleCountries: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Israel,-> EFL countries
Spoken English regarded as norm performing -> standards from Inner & Outer Circles are performed / taken over
But no official status, therefore dependent on standards set by Inner Circle
*Kachrus three cirlce model of world EnglishesCriticismModel implies uniformity of countries within one circle -> not true: even in Inner Circle differences in amount of liguistic diversity
todays Immigration left out of account
grey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -> countries in transition from EFL to ESL status, like: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark
* Mc Arthurs circle of World EnglishInner Circle:World Standard English-> but not existing in identifiable form
Outer Circle:Band of regional varieties of English
standard standardising forms forms
*Mc Arthurs circle of World Englishcrowded fringe
Dividing the world into 8 seperate regions
Describe subvarieties of the standard & standardising forms
Examples: Welsh English, Quebec English,
Summary example: WSE
American Standard English
*Singapore English - Short Overview About HistorySingapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya kingdom of Sumatrain 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles leased the island from the Sultan of Johoreit became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca and Penang in 1826 (under the East India Company)1867 British colonytaken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became British again in 1945self-government in 1959part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to 1965 then independent state
*Singapore English - General Factsfour official languages in Singapore English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and TamilEnglish is the language of the law courts, government administration and education1947 31,6 percent of students attended English-medium schools (others attended Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools)since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for primary, secondary and tertiary educationmain language of commerce and businessmain feature: wide social range of its users
*The Concept of basilect and acrolect use of EnglishSocial dialectic conceptAcrolect (standard):Used for international communicationAnd for formal & public intranational interactionBasilect (colloquial):Used for informal intranational communication
*Singapore English - General Factsat the higher level there's a government-backed normative variety based on British English spoken with a near-RP accent used by Singapore Broadcasting Corporation influenced by American usageon the other hand home-grown colloquial style - so called Singlish serves the young as a means of solidarity, relaxing and being oneself vigorous, slangy and creative language
*Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese influence Chinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express emphasis and emotion la(h) as a token of informal intimacy Can you come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lah aa/ah in yes-no questions You wait me, aa? instead of Will you wait for me? I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come tonight? You think I scared of you, ah?
*Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese-style interjections ay yaah! to express surprise or exasperation ay yor! to express pain or wonder or both ay yer! indicating a reaction to something unpleasant and maybe unexptected che! expressing irritation or regret
*Singapore English - Pronounciationvowels in words such as take, so and dare are often single vowels as in Scottish English and not diphthongs as in RP reduction of final consonant clusters to one spoken consonant juss for 'just' tol for 'told' slep for 'slept'
*Singapore English - Grammartendency of omitting articles You have pen or not? plural inflection -s I got two sister and three brother. present-tense inflection -s This radio sound good. past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and slep for slept
*Singapore English - Grammardirect and indirect objects are often placed first Me you don't give it to. instead of You didn't give it to me. also used more often than too, especially at the end of a sentence But we are supposed to learn Chinese also.
*Singapore English - Grammarways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees or can or cannot do something are pretty informal Are you coming? Yes or not? Like it or not? Are you going? Can or not? Enough or not?
*Singapore English - VocabularyEnglish words with re-applied meanings send meaning 'take' I will send you home. open meaning 'put on' Open the light. close meaning 'put off' Close the light. take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' Do you take hot food?
*Singapore English - Vocabularyformal and informal style are less distinct from each other than in British and American usage that results in a mix of highly colloquial and highly formal use her deceased hubby rather then her dead husband words taken from regional languages for example the Malayan word makan (food) Let's have some makan.
*The Implication for LIANo need to bother about World Englishes if you teach EC, ET, EA.Expose the students to World Englishes if you teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and tolerance and provide your students with cross-cultural communication strategies.