Text of Asian Englishes in the Outer and Expanding Circles World Englishes Unit 6 (AF)
Asian Englishes in the Outer and Expanding Circles World Englishes Unit 6 (AF)
English in the Indian Subcontinent Origins and History The British first arrived in India in the early 1600s and soon established trading posts in a number of cities under the control of The East India Company. By 1765 the Companys influence had grown to such an extent that the British were effectively controlling most parts of the country. This date is often taken as the start of what is referred to as The Raj a period of British rule in India that lasted until Independence in 1947.
English in the Indian Subcontinent Origins and History A large number of Christian schools imparting an English education were set up by the early 1800's. The earliest English language policy for India was enshrined in Macaulays famous Minute (2 Feb.1835) We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern, --a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.
Macaulays Attitude toward Indian Languages and Educational Policy I have no knowledge of either Sanscrit or Arabic. But I have done what I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read translations of the most celebrated Arabic and Sanscrit works. I have conversed, both here and at home, with men distinguished by their proficiency in the Eastern tongues. I am quite ready to take the oriental learning at the valuation of the orientalists themselves. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the Western literature is indeed fully admitted by those members of the committee who support the oriental plan of education.
English in 20 th Century India English had become the official and academic language of India by the early twentieth century. English was increasingly accepted as the language of government, of the social elite, and of the national press. In 1947 India became an independent nation state. English was supposed to be gradually replaced by Hindi as the language of administration. But, in a country with hundreds of languages, it was difficult to choose a single national language, as mother tongue speakers of that language would automatically enjoy greater social status and have easier access to positions of power and influence. So, although English was not an indigenous language, it became an Associate Language, alongside Hindi, the Official Language of the Union of India and eighteen 'National Languages', such as Bengali, Gujurati and Urdu, that have a special status in certain individual states.
English in India today Despite continued pressure from nationalists, English remains at the heart of Indian society. It is widely used in the media, in Higher Education and government and therefore remains a common means of communication, both among the ruling classes, and between speakers of mutually unintelligible languages. Role of English as a neutral language of wider communication. Despite being a three percent minority, the English speaking population in India is quite large: that three percent puts India among the top four countries in the world with the highest number of English speakers.
Indian English It is a linguistic variety with its own grammatical, lexical, phonological and discoursal norms. It has developed its own varietal characteristics through the interaction of Indian languages and social behaviours with those of English. The Indianisation of English involves adaptations of existing features of British English and the use of transferred mother-tongue items where British English is deficient.
Indian English: Phonology V~W merger: many speakers do not differentiate between the sounds and. TH-stopping: they sometimes replace in words like think and this with a and sound, as no Indian languages contain these consonants. Rhoticity: the sound is pronounced after a vowel in words like hard, corn and nurse. Unaspirated : there is no release of air when precedes a vowel in words like pin and pot
Indian English: Grammar Under the influence of traditional Hindi grammar, speakers often use progressive tenses in statements, such as I am believing you or she is liking music. Zero article: the indefinite article, a or an, or the definite article, the, are often omitted. Zero past tense marker: verbs are left unmarked for tense, although other signals (adverbs of time, such as yesterday, last week etc.) often give linguistic clues about the timing of an event. Declarative word order in interrogative construction: normal subject + verb word order is retained in statements using the question words who, what, when, where, why, how etc.. Plural uncount nouns: litters, luggages, furnitures, woods.
Indian English: Lexis Code-switching: the occasional or even frequent use of a Hindi (or Urdu, Punjabi, Gujurati etc.) word or expression within an English sentence can communicate a great sense of shared identity or solidarity with other speakers. Extensive compound formation: English-speaking classes, cousin- brother / cousin-sister, chalk-piece, key-bunch, meeting notice, age barred, pindrop silence, time-pass. Shortening of words: enthu for enthusiastic/enthusiasm or fundas for fundamentals Acronyms: MCP = Male Chauvinist Pig - FOC = Free Of Charge MPK = Maine Pyar Kiya (a popular movie) ILU = I Love You (from a song; pronounced ee-lu) ABCD = American Born Confused Deshi (native of India) FOB = Fresh Off the Boat
Indian English: Usage Whats your good name? Dear sir, with reference to your above see my below - popular opening line in official letters. Pritam Singh has left for his heavenly above - a death notice. Hue and Cry notice - title of police missing person newspaper advertisement. She freaked out last night - she had a good time. Kindly please advise me. Thank youji, Doctor Sahib. Namaste, how are you? "Will you take tea? To give a test
English in China History 1637: first contact between English speakers and Chinese when British expeditionary mission arrives in Macau and Canton. A century later, Chinese Pidgin English develops as a lingua franca between natives and foreigners on the coast of South China. Growth and diffusion of CPE enhanced by its extensive usability. 1862 : Treaty of Tientsin opens many other places to Western interests. Western missionaries establish schools, where either English is formally taught or adopted as a medium of instruction. 1949: establishment of the Peoples Republic of China. English disappears from the school curriculum and Russian becomes the main foreign language. After the collapse of the Cultural Revolution (196676), English recovers its importance and popularity as the country shifts to modernization and economic development.
English in China today A primary school English textbook adopted in Tientsin starts with this preface: English is usually used at international settings, and it is also a tool to grasp advanced scientific and technological information. In accordance with our countrys reform and open-door policies, it is essential that we learn English properly. English is recognized as an indispensable language for international exchange and better-paid employment. English is a very important subject at all levels of formal education. TV and radio stations popularize ELT programs across the country. The national College English Test (CET) promotes English language learning at the tertiary level. The certificate of CET Band 4/6 has attained such a high social value that a majority of universities adopt the policy of no CET 4/ 6 certificate, no graduation diploma, with the result that 6 million students take the tests annually. English-language training in China is an industry worth around 15 billion yuan a year, or about 1.3bn, and there are more than 50,000 English-training organisations in China.
China English A definition English language specialists in China tend to refer to local features of English as China English instead of Chinese English since they claim that the latter characterization sounds derogatory to them, associated with Chinese Pidgin English or Chinglish. China English is an educated variety of English that Chinese speakers of the language are expected to employ at international encounters, expressing their own cultural norms, behavioral patterns, and value systems. Jiang, 2002
China English Phonology (Deterding et al., 2006) [s] instead of [th] sounds avoidance of weak forms for function words stressing of final pronouns no voiced fricatives many multisyllabic words pronounced with syllable-timing insertion of final schwa
China English Syntax & Pragmatics Topicalization of adjuncts: adverbials or adverbial clauses placed in front of main verb of a sentence. Null subject parameter. English texts are often organised in a deductive manner (main topic at beginning, supporting material postponed). China English te