A discussion on the emergence of World Englishes - varieties other than the US or UK standards and the proposition of Global English as a lingua franca. The implications of these issues on English Language Teaching are consequently considered.
- 1. English Worldwide A look at varieties ofEnglish and the impacts on ELT Stephan Hughes M.A. in Linguistics, Specialist in Distance Education and E-moderation.Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
2. Aims Talk about the spread of English (from Kachrus 3circles to today) Examine the (symbiotic) relationship between Britishand American English Explore the rise (in larger or minor scale) of othervarieties e.g. Australian, Canadian, Indian, SouthAfrican, Caribbean Study the case for Global English or ELF as a teachingresource Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 3. What is/are World English(es)? According to Bolton (2006): tterm that refers to the differingapproaches to describe and analyze Englishworldwide The new Englishes from the Caribbean, Westand East African societies to Asian Englishes Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 4. Different spreading phases The British Empire up to the Victorian era The rise of the US as superpower The advent of radio, film and TV The birth of the computer and the Internet The social media boom and the generation Connectcraze The status of English as language for business,politics, global issues of all kinds Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 5. Norm-providing: USA, UKThe 3 groups of Englishspeakers (Kachru, 1992) Norm-developing: India,The spread of Englishconceived in 3 concentric Nigeriacircles. At the core is theNorn-providing group, the Norm-dependent: Brazil,Norm-developing group fornsthe middle layer and the Chinanorn-dependent the outercrust.This representation, however,fails to depict the fluiditybetwwen these so-calledlayers.Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 6. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 7. With the Outer Circle continually expanding,The vast majority of ESL and EFL teachers are non-native speakers. This leads us to the perennial debateStephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 8. Who is a native speaker?And is that important?What can a NNEST do better? What can a NEST do better?Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 9. Canagarajah (2006) argues The circles are leaking Reasons: Human migration Technology (ICTs) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 10. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 11. The Americanization of British EnglishThe Britishisation of American English Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 12. Americanisms the Brits dont like Where you at? Take-out food Bi-weekly Alphabetize Theyve got issuesSee the article Americanisms: 50 of your most noted examples,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 13. Britishisms that amuse Americans Go missing Chat somebody up Sell-by date Spot on!See the article Britishisms and the Britishisation of American English,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 14. Conclusion: The two varieties mutually affect each other.Does that mean the intralingual differences no longer exist?Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 15. What about the differences in other Englishes? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 16. Which English should be taught in language classrooms? Watch the videos to find out: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XT04EO5RSU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hd6rjsxs5U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxbDwmclUcMStephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 17. One thing must be pointed out Despite the phonological, lexical and (to a lesserextent) syntactic differences, speakers of eachvariety have little or no difficulty understanding eachother. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 18. For Kandiah (1998a), the reasons forvarieties are twofold: Development of language in new and unfamiliarcontexts Contexts marked by different ecological, cultural,linguistic, social, etc. characteristics. 19. Is it always easy for English speakers of differentvarieties to understand each other? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 20. Simon. Gday Peto.Simo you too. GdayLes. Good morning gentlemen good morning gentlemen I find you both well.You are very well.Yes Im yih absolutely dynamic. Chipper is the phrase I believe.Is that right. I Im the best Ive been for ages. Hey good good. Grr.Oh he is too hubba hubba wing ding that carpenters got everything.Pete how are . Who was that singer recently that kept singing. Oh ChubbyChecker.No no the the woman singer with the the uh the vamp yknow that that the shnot I forget her name.Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 21. Canadian EnglishStephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 22. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 23. Indian EnglishClassic 19th-century literatureEuropean wordsthat have beenIndianized Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 24. Caribbean Creole EnglishVaries fromcountry to Lexicon from British English countryLexcion from Indian languages Morphology, phonology and syntaxHindi, Urdu, Persian (Trinidad andfrom West African languages Guyana) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 25. Examples of CCE (phonological lexical-syntactic) He rich She tell meh everyting I wash de clothes yesterday Students does go on like that He does go to church every week My fadder workin 2 job We limin tomorrow? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 26. CCE along a continuum (Gibson, 1986)Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 27. Standard English Acrolect MesolectBasilectStephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 28. Trinidad English We get the redeye, not the pinkeye. Overweight people have big skin, not bigbones. When friends meet, they say wha going on,not wassup? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 29. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 30. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 31. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 32. Caribbean Overlap (Clachar, 2006; Le Page,South1985; Nero, 2000)African Creole English English Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 33. In both varieties Hand refers to the arm Foot refers to the leg A next one means another one Object pronouns generally replace subjectpronouns Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 34. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 35. Why are two billion people learning English?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxbDwmclUcM Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 36. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 37. Global English The pros and cons ofinternationalizing the language Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 38. In the words of Canagarajah (2006) There is no such thing as a universal EnglishLanguage, nor a World Standard English (WSE) People construct English according to thecommunicative purpose and context Functionality and pragmatics dictate communicationin English today. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 39. Global English implications Need for a global language in a globalized world Decadence of other languages (cultural genocide) Practicality of learning English Reduction of problems in translation (gain on oneend, loss on the other)Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 40. What is Global English? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 41. English as a Lingua Franca The manager dont like when people arrive late The company who has grown steadily over the pastyears now faces its biggest challenge to date. They have a respect for all of us The knowledges we gain from learning anotherlanguage is undeniable 42. English as a Lingua Franca Can you take a look at this files? There are some points of the contract we need toput more attention to. Youve met the new CEO, isnt it? Could you please ask him to phone to me as soon ashe gets in? We need to discuss about the newproject. 43. Global English seems to present forms generally considered incorrect These changes or imperfections are not limited to only one aspect of language. 44. Bibliography BOLTON, K. Current perspectives on teaching worldEnglishes and English as a Lingua Franca. TESOLQuarterly. (2006) CANAGARAJAH, S. Negotiating the Local in English asa Lingua Franca. Annual Review of AppliedLinguistics, 197-218, CUP. (2006)Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 45. Bibliography CLACHAR, Arlene. Re-examining ELL Programs inPublic Schools: A Focus on Creole-English ChildrensClause Structuring Strategies in Written AcademicDiscourse. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of theOxford Round Table (Fall, 2006). 1-38. GIBSON, Kean. The Ordering of Auxiliary Notions inGuyanese Creole. Linguistic Society of America.(September 1986) 571-586. KACHRU, B. The Alchemy of English: the spread,functions and models of non-native Englishes.University of Illinois Press. (1990)Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 46. Bibliography KANDIAH, T. Why New Englishes. In: English in NewCultural Contexts: Reflections from Singapore, J.Foley, T. Kandiah, B. Zhiming, A. Gupta, L. Algasoff,C.L. Ho, L. Wee, L.S. Talib, W. Bokhorst-Heng (eds), 1-40. OUP. 1998. LE PAGE, R.B. & TABOURET-KELLER, Andree. Acts ofIdentity. Cambridge , Great Britain; CUP, 1985, Print. NERO, Shondel J. The Changing Faces of English: ACaribbean Perspective. TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 34,No.3 (Autumn, 2000) 483-510. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes 47. For more on World Englishes Varieties of English around the world:http://www.benjamins.com/cgi-bin/t_seriesview.cgi?series=veaw World Englishes:http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-WENG.htmlStephan Arthur Solomon Hughes