- 1. World Englishes APPROACHES, ISSUES, AND RESOURCES Braj B. Kachru University of Illinois Kanlapan, Mela & Velasco, Joseph
2. World Englishes
- We can no longer simply view English as a worldwide lingua franca; rather, as many nonnative varieties of English become standardized.
Braj B. KachruUniversity of Illinois 3. Conferences that moved the concept of World Englishes
- East-West Culture Learning Institute (currently the Institute for Culture and Communication) of the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
- Linguistics Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, hosted by the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA
Participants from Bangladesh, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, India, the Philippines, New Zealand, Great Britain and Germany. 4. Results of the Honolulu Conference
- Teaching of English should be reflected in all cases of sociocultural contexts and the educational policies of the countries concerned.
- No organization exist that takes account of any language in the light of this fundamental distinction
- It is not for us to define the policies to be adopted, but the conference identified a number of fundamental issues. These issues can be considered under four headings:
- (c) Documentation, dissemination, and liaison
- (d) Professional support activities
5. Why use the term Englishes?
- Functional & formal variations
- Divergent sociolinguistic context
- Ranges and varieties of English in Creativity
- Various type of acculturization in parts of the Western and non-Western world.
- Emphasizes WE-ness, and not the dichotomy between us and them (the native and non-native speakers)
6. The Spread and Stratification of English
- Functionally uninsightful & linguistically questionable
- when discussing the functions of English in multilingual societies
7. The Spread and Stratification of English
- This earlier distinction has come under attack
- Quirk rejects this terminological triad
- I doubt its validity and frequently fail to understand its meaning.
8. Kachrus Concentric Circles of English 9. Kachrus Concentric Circles of English
- Represents the traditional bases of English
- Dominated by the mother-tongue varieties of the language
- English has been institutionalized as an additional language
- Includes the rest of the world where English is used as the primary foreign language.
Expanding Circle Inner Circle Outer Circle 10. Characteristics of the Stratification
- The study of the spread and stratification of English in the non-Western world is a post-1960 phenomenon
- Consequence of the theoretical and methodological insights gained by what are termedsocially realistic linguisticapproaches to language study
- The exponents of stratification in the Outer Circle have been interpreted in two ways: as a lectal range and as a cline in English bilingualism
11. Interactional Contexts of World Englishes
- The shift of the focus on to thefunctions of English in various types of interactional contexts , both in the Inner and Outer Circles.
- The study and analysis of English in interactional contexts has resulted in the studies such as the following:
12. Descriptive and Prescriptive Concerns
- Sacred cows of theoretical and applied linguistics are under aggression as an outcome of two major development:
- the impact of description, analysis, methodology, and relevance shown in sociolinguistic models, and the research initiatives
- ideas provided by scholars from the outer circle
13. The Bilinguals Creativity and Literary Canon
- Those creative linguistic processes which are the result of competence in two or more languages.
- Not used for acquisitional inadequacies in a language
- Refers to the designing of a text which uses linguistic resources from two or more related or unrelated languages
14. Contact Literatures in English
- Result of the contact of English with other languages in multilingual and multicultural context like in the case of Africa and Asia.
- The contact varieties, as time passes, acquire stable characteristics in their pronunciation, syntax, vocabulary and discoursal and style strategies.
- Long-term contact results inNativisationandAcculturation.
- Refers to the process which creates a localized linguistic identity of a variety
- Gives English distinct and local cultural identities.
Such writing can be found in South Asia, West Africa, thePhilippines and Southeast Asia. 15. Three facts on the Bilinguals Creativity in English
- The institutionalized nonnative varieties have an educated variety and a cline of sub-varieties.
- Writers in contact literature in English engage in lectal mixing
- In such writing, there are style-shifts which are related to the underlying sociolinguistic and cultural context
The result of such style-shifts, appropriate to non-Western contexts, is new discourse strategies, use di stinctly different speech acts, and development of new registers in English 16. Issues on the Bilinguals Creativity in English
- Question of language deficiency vs. difference
- Recognition of Innovations used for stylistic effect as foregrounding
- Recognition of various text types code mixed or noncode mixed whichare internationally meant for bilingual readers who share the bilinguals linguistic repertoire and cultural and literary canon.
- Recognizing functional appropriateness of lacalized sublanguages and registers
- Providing contrastive typologies of linguistic and cultural conventions
- Describing the formal and functional characteristics of bilinguals language mixing and switching
17. Multicanons of English
- The results of this extensive use of English over a long period has resultedin multicanons of Englishand a shift of the canon
18. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation
- Two processes have developed, as it were, two faces of English.
- One showing what the contact has formally done to various varieties of English.
- The other showing what impact the English language and literature have had on other languages of the world
19. The Two Faces of English: Nativisation and Englishisation
- Vocabularies of the world have been most receptive to borrowing from English
- An example is the Japanese language wherein 81% of the borrowed vocabulary Japanese are words of English origin.
- In Thai, passivisation has traditionally been used with adversative connotation (the use ofthuuk). This semantic constraint is not changing due to the influence of English.
20. Fallacies Concerning Users and Uses 21. The Power and Politics of English
- A number of recent studies address issues related to the ideological, cultural and elitist power of English
- Related to such power is the immense economic advantage of English to the countries in the Inner Circle, particularlyBritain and the United States .
- The world wide market for EFL training is worth a massive 6.5 billion a year according to a new report from the Economic Intelligence Unit(EFL Gazette. March, 1989).
- The very existence of their power thus provides the Inner Circle with incentives for devising ways to maintain attitudinal and formal control.
22. Teaching World Englishes 23. Why teach World Englishes?
- It is obvious that World Englishes provide a challenging opportunity to relate three academic areaslanguage, literature, and methodology .
- The approach to World Englishes has tobe cross-cultural and cross-linguistic.
- The sources involve diverse cultures, languages, and literatures in contact with English.
- One has to haveinterdisciplinary perspectivesfocusing on the linguistic face of World Englishe