Who speaks English todayWorld EnglishesLesson 3
English Today3 groups of users:
Those who speak English respectively asa native language = ENLa second language = ESLa foreign language = EFL
Neat classifications become increasingly difficult
Who speaks English today?English as a Native Language (ENL)Language of those born and raised in one of the countries where English is historically the first language to be spoken (i.e. mainly the UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand)~ 350 million speakers
English as a Second Language (ESL)Language spoken in a large number of territories which were once colonized by the English (e.g., India, Nigeria, Singapore)~ 350 million speakers
Who speaks English today?English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Language of those for whom it serves no purposes within their own countriesHistorically, EFL was learned to use the language with its native speakers in the US and UK ~ 1 billion speakers with reasonable competence
Difficulties with the three-way categorizationENL is not a single variety of EnglishPidgins and creoles do not fit into the categorization.There are large groups of ENL speakers in ESL territories and vice versa.It is based on the concept of monolingualism, but bi- or multilingualism is the norm.It is based on the basic distinction between native speakers and non-native speakers, with the first group being considered superior regardless of the quality of their language.(cf. McArthur 1998)
Pidgins and creolesDefinition pidginA pidgin is a language with no native speakers: it is no ones first language but is a contact language.(Wardhaugh 2006: 613)Definition creoleIn contrast to a pidgin, a creole is often defined as a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers. (Wardhaugh 2006: 613)
Models of the spread of EnglishStreven (1980): World map of EnglishKachru (1985/1988): Three circle model of World EnglishesMcArthur (1987): Circle of World EnglishGrlach (1988): Circle model of EnglishModiano (1999): The centripetal circles of international English
Three circle model of World EnglishesKachru (1992: 356)Most useful and influential modelWorld Englishes divided into 3 concentric circles:1. Inner Circle: ~ ENL countries, norm-providing2. Outer Circle:~ ESL countries, norm-developing3. Expanding Circle: ~EFL countries, norm-dependent
Limitations with Kachrus modelBased on geography and history, rather than the speakers use of English.Grey area between Inner and Outer Circles as well as Outer and Expanding Circles.The worlds bilingual or multilingual speakers are not taken into account.Difficulty of using the model to define speakers in terms of their proficiency in English.Does not account for the linguistic diversity within and between countries of a particular circle.The term Inner Circle implies that speakers from ENL countries are central, and may thus be interpreted as superior.
RecapWhat do the acronyms ENL, ESL and EFL stand for and what do they refer to?Name some of the difficulties with the tripartite categorisation into ENL, ESL and EFL speakers.Explain Kachrus three-circle model of the spread of English. Highlight its advantages as well as limitations.
The English Today debateEnglish EnglishesOuter Circle Englishes still regularly regarded asInterlanguage: learner language which has not yet reached the targetFossilized language: language used when learning has ceased short of native-like competenceExpanding Circle Englishes even less accepted
The English Today debateControversy between Randolph Quirk and Braij Kachru, Journal English Today, early 1990sNon-native Englishes as deficit:Quirk: Language varieties and standard languageNon-native Englishes are inadequately learned versions of correct native English formsNon-native Englishes are not valid as teaching modelsNon-native Englishes as difference:Kachru: Liberation linguistics and the Quirk ConcernCriticizes Quirks deficit linguistics positionHighlights four false assumptions of Quirks argument
RecapWhat is Quirks position with regard to the English spoken in Outer Circle countries? Which role should Outer Circle Englishes play in education and language teaching according to Quirk?What are Kachrus arguments against Quirks position? According to Kachru, which false assumptions underlie Quirks position? How does Kachru see the role of English in Outer Circle countries?
Teaching English todayChallenging the premise that NS is best teacher:NS is expert informant, but not necessarily expert instructor (Widdowson 1994)NNS teachers and students have shared experience of learning English asset (Seidlhofer 1999)But:Authority of NS teacher still upheld in teaching materialsNS teachers still sought most