Turmoil Over Taxation . George Grenville – Prime Minister – colonists should help pay debt created from French and Indian War. Later on became member of Parliament. Sugar Act of 1764 put a tax on molasses which was a valuable item in the triangular trade. . Sugar Act of 1764. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Turmoil Over Taxation
Turmoil Over Taxation George Grenville Prime Minister colonists should help pay debt created from French and Indian War. Later on became member of Parliament
Sugar Act of 1764Sugar Act of 1764 put a tax on molasses which was a valuable item in the triangular trade.
Sugar Act of 1764Replaced a previous tax that had led to colonial traders bribing tax officials to look the other way.
Law made it easier to put smugglers on trialSTAMP ACT OF 1765Placed new duties on legal documents; taxes newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice.
Stamp Act of 1765
REACTION TOSTAMP ACT OF 1765Colonists protested angrily.
Colonists coined the slogan No Taxation Without Representation.
Colonists united. Delegates met in a Stamp Act Congress in NYC.
REACTIONS TO STAMP ACTThe Congress drew up a petition, a formal written request to someone in authority, signed by a group of people.
Colonists boycotted, or refused to buy, British goods.
British merchants in financial trouble because were not selling goods Parliament repealed, or cancelled, the Stamp Act in 1766.Stamp Act Repealed
Townshend Acts-1767Taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea.Named after British Treasury official Charles TownshendTownshend Acts of 1767Set up new ways to collect taxes, including writs of assistance, legal documents that allowed officers to inspect another persons property without giving a reason.
Custom officials sent to colonies stop smuggling. Writs of Assistance violated rights as British citizens property could not be searched without a good reason if person suspected of committing a crime. Reaction to Townshend ActsColonial merchants (North) and planters (South) signed agreement to stop importing taxed goods.
Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty, mock hangings, petitions, boycotts, threats.
Sons and Daughters of LibertyFormed by angry colonists to protest British policiesThey staged mocked hangings of cloth or straw effigies dressed as British officials (tax collectors) What would you think if you were a British official?Sons and Daughters of LibertyWomen paraded, signed petitions, and organized a boycott of British cloth, they made their own cloth
They went further organizing boycotts and threatening people who did not boycott.New Colonial Leaders emerge in the colonies as the struggle over taxes continuesSamuel Adams Mass.
He arranged protests and stirred public support.A talented organizer from Massachusetts.John Adams Mass.
Massachusetts lawyer who had a knowledge of British law that earned him respect.
Sams Cousin Mercy Otis Warren Mass.She wrote plays that made fun of British officials. Also from Mass.Using her pen, she also called for greater rights for women
Abigail Adams Mass.
Abigail Adams wrote to spur colonists to action.
Friends with Mercy Otis WarrenWanted greater rights for womenGeorge Washington
Member of Virginia House of Burgesses. Protested the Townshend Acts.
Also from Virginia He gave speeches that stirred others to action.Patrick HenryTreasonIf this be treason, make the most of it
Also from Virginia was a 22 year old rising law student.
Boston MassacreBritain sent soldiers to Boston to protect customs officials.Bostonians saw the British as bullies and insulted or even assaulted the British soldiers.Boston MassacreOn March 5, 1770, Bostonians gathered outside the Boston customs house, shouting insults and throwing things at the British guards.Boston MassacreSuddenly, panicked soldiers fired into the crowd, killing some colonists.Colonists protested the incident, calling it the Boston Massacre.Boston MassacreThe soldiers were tried, but John Adams defended them and was able to win light sentences for them.Committee of CorrespondenceSamuel Adams formed a committee of correspondence, a group that regularly wrote letters and pamphlets reporting to other colonies on events in Massachusetts.
ResultsBy coincidence, on day of Boston MassacreTownshend acts repealed.
Most taxes were repealed with the exception ofThe Tax on TEA.The Tea Tax Explodes in Mass.By 1770, at least one million Americans brewed tea twice a day.
People would rather go without their dinners than without a dish of tea. according to a visitor to the colonies
Tea Act of 1773The British East India Company sold tea to colonial tea merchants. The tea merchants sold the tea to the colonists for a higher price.Tea Act of 1773When the British East India Company had money troubles, Parliament passed the Tea Act. The act said British East India Company could sell directly to colonists.
Tea Act of 1773American merchants protested being cut out of the tea trade. Other colonists said it was a trick to force colonists to pay the tax on tea.Colonists boycotted tea.Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Sons of Liberty showed their displeasure by staging the Boston Tea Party. Disguised as Indians, they raided three ships and dumped their cargo of tea into Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Actspassed to punish MassachusettsThe port of Boston was closed.Intolerable ActsMassachusetts colonists could not hold town meetings more than once a year without the governors permission. In other words, they limited Massachusetts assembly.Intolerable ActsCustoms officers and other officials could be tried in Britain or Canada instead of in Massachusetts so Customs officials to be tried elsewhere.A new Quartering Act said colonists must house British soldiers in their homes.
More Trouble for ColonistsQuebec Act-Sets Up Government for CanadaGives religious freedom to French CatholicsExtended the borders to include land between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers into territory that some of the Colonists claimedFirst Continental CongressDelegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia.All Colonies represented except GeorgiaFirst Continental CongressAgreed to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain.
First Continental CongressUrged each colony to set up a militia, which is an army of citizens who serve as soldiers in an emergency.
Agreed to meet again the next year.