Turmoil in England. Foundations for U.S. Colonization. The founding of a nation. The Declaration of Independence created the United States of America in 1776. The Constitution of the United States of America was ratified in 1789. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The English Civil Wars
Foundations for U.S. ColonizationTurmoil in EnglandThe founding of a nationThe Declaration of Independence created the United States of America in 1776. The Constitution of the United States of America was ratified in 1789.However, the foundations of both documents reside in the Anglican roots of the Revolutionaries who gave rise to those United States Washington, Adams, Jefferson and others who came before them.Growing tensionsCharles IBegan to follow Anglican ChurchUsed Private courts to punish OpponentsUsed Star Chamber to Punish OpponentsMoved closer to becoming an Absolute MonarchPuritansGained Control of English ParliamentOpposed Charles I and Anglican ChurchFelt Charles I was becoming a Tyrant
The PurePuritanism was fundamentally anti-Catholic: Puritans felt that the Church of England was still too close to Catholicism and needed to be reformed further. Many of the rituals preserved by the Church of England were not only considered to be objectionable, but were believed by some nonconformists to put one's immortal soul in peril.
The accession of King James I of England brought the Millenary Petition, a Puritan manifesto of 1603 for reform of the English church, but James wanted a new religious settlement along different lines.English Civil War(s)Parliaments opposition to the concept of royal supremacy led to conflict and rebellion in EnglandCharles IWanted Divine Rights of KingRaised Taxes and refused to assemble parliamentBrought religious strife to EnglandParliamentNeeded to grant money for King CharlesForced Signing of Petition of Rights (1628)Became Religiously divided and opposed Charles I
Petition of rightsPetition Put forth by Parliament, in order to grant King Charles I money, that helped prove the LAW was more powerful than the KINGStated that the king could NOT:Imprison people without due causeIssue taxes without agreement of ParliamentForce private homes to house soldiersImpose martial law in peace times Alluded to in points of argument within the Declaration of Independence (1776)royalists vs. PuritansCavaliersAnglicans, Roman Catholics, Nobles, and opponents of Parliament reformSupported the KingAlso known as RoyalistsRoundheadsProtestants and Other non-Anglican ProtestantsSupported Parliament against the KingNamed for the style of soldiers Haircuts
The rise and fall of the first english republicOliver Cromwell Wants a Representative form of GovernmentEngland Drafts the First Constitution of any major European CountryGovernment becomes unpopular, but cannot be put downCromwells Republic fails after he dissolves parliamentCromwell Dies and his son Richard becomes leaderRichard loses support of army and control of England
The restorationFailure of Cromwells republic leads to the rule of King Charles IIPeople wanted a return to peace and progressMonarchy is re-established in EnglandTheatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, Puritanism lost its momentum, and the bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognizable genre. In addition, women were allowed to perform on stage for the first time. In Scotland, Episcopacy was reinstated.
The PureThe Puritan movement of Jacobean times became distinctive by adaptation and compromise, with the emergence of "semi-separatism", "moderate puritanism", the writings of William Bradshaw who adopted the term "Puritan" as self-identification, and the beginnings of congregationalism. Most Puritans of this period were non-separating and remained within the Church of England, and Separatists who left the Church of England altogether were numerically much fewer.The SeparateUnlike the Puritan group who maintained their membership in and allegiance to the Church of England, Separatists held that their differences with the Church of England were irreconcilable and that their worship should be organized independently of the trappings, traditions and organization of a central churchThe Separatists had long been controversial. Under the 1559 Act of Uniformity, it was illegal not to attend official Church of England services, with a fine of 12d (0.05; 2005 equivalent: about 5) for each missed Sunday and holy day. The penalties for conducting unofficial services included imprisonment and larger fines. Under the policy of this time, Henry Barrowe and John Greenwood were executed for sedition in 1593.The SeparateUnable to obtain the papers necessary to leave England, members of the Separatist congregation agreed to leave surreptitiously. One documented attempt was in 1607, when members of the congregation chartered a boat. This turned out to be a sting operation, with all arrested upon boarding.
Ultimately, at least 150 of the congregation made their way to Amsterdam.
By 1617, although the congregation was stable and relatively secure, there were ongoing issues that needed to be resolved.The SeparateWilliam Bradford noted that the congregation was aging, compounding the difficulties some had in supporting themselves. Some, having spent through their savings, gave up and returned to England. It was feared that more would follow and that the congregation would become unsustainable. The employment issues made it unattractive for others to come to Leiden, and younger members had begun leaving to find employment and adventure elsewhere. Also compelling was the possibility of missionary work, an opportunity that rarely arose in a Protestant stronghold.The SeparateReasons for departure are suggested by Bradford, when he notes the "discouragements" of the hard life they had in the Netherlands, and the hope of attracting others by finding "a better, and easier place of living"; the "children" of the group being "drawn away by evil examples into extravagance and dangerous courses"; the "great hope, for the propagating and advancing the gospell of the kingdom of Christ in those remote parts of the world."
The first challengeEven before Mayflower anchored off the tip of Cape Cod, there was a near mutiny. The passengers had hired themselves out as indentured servants, promising to work for seven years to pay for their passage. Some of these passengers thought they could do as they pleased since they were outside the bounds of English law. So they threatened to take their freedom as soon as they got on land. The Pilgrim leaders knew it would take a lot of hard work to survive that first winter. They would have to cut down trees and haul logs and thatch to build houses. They knew they would need all the help they could get.
The ConstitutionTo solve the problem, the Pilgrims wrote the Mayflower Compact. The Compact was an agreement signed by all the men on board-including the indentured servants-promising to abide by laws that would be drawn up and agreed upon by all male members of the community. The women were not allowed to participate in the governing process. The Compact states that they would choose their own leaders and make their own laws. It also stated there was to be equal justice for all. This Compact became the constitution of the Plymouth Colony. It was the first document of American democracy to establish "government of the people, by the people, for the people." The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship.Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule.Signed by 41 adult males.Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.The compact
Start of Democracy in americaThis Compact, which was to be the official Constitution of Plymouth Colony for over 70 years, is the first American State Paper. It is also the first statement of the principles of democracy as we now know and understand them. For the first time in the history of the world, a group of men --of their own will--agreed to be governed by themselves according to the will of the majority. The Mayflower Compact is the first document of American Democracy.Survivor: Plymouth Bay1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction.Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish.Plymouth Bay was outside the domain of the Virginia Company.Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
William BradfordSelf-taught scholar.Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections.Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society.
The first yearWinter of 1620-1621Only 44 out of the original 102 survived.None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back.Fall of 1621 First Thanksgiving.Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber.Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant.1691 only 7,000 peopleMerged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.The massachusetts bay colony1629 non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the MA Bay Co.Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England.They didnt want to leave the Church, just its impurities.1630 1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked shipsEstablished a colony with Boston as its hub.Great Migration of the 1630sTurmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.Not all Puritans 20,000 came to MA.
Meanwhile, with the PuritansWell-off attorney and manor lord in England.A Modell of Christian Charity.Became 1st governor of Massachusetts.Believed that he had a calling from God to lead there.Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years.
Characteristics of New England SettlementsLow mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age.Well-educated and middle-classMany extended families.Average 6 children per family.Average age at marriage:Women 22 years oldMen 27 years old.Puritan rebelsRoger Williams (founder