Translate the underlinedSkills are skills. Pleasures are pleasures. But some skills are lasting pleasures. Such is reading. Listening to Hazlitt The greatest pleasure in life is that of reading. or Macaulay I would rather be a poor man in a garret with plenty of books than a king who did not love reading. To them and countless others all over the world, reading is a source of deepest and fullest enjoyment. Thats true from early school days to the days of leisure and retirement. key
Part of youth lies in dreaming dreaming impossible dreams that you can sometimes make possible. Robert F. Kennedy said this: Some men see things as they are and say Why? I dream things that never were and say Why not? Certain books push the boundaries of the human mind out beyond belief. After all, a little bit of greatness hides in everyone. Let books bring it into full bloom. key
CaseCase is a grammatical category that can express a number of different relationships between nominal elements. The unmarked Common case (subject/object) the marked Genitive case /possessive case(boys)
Henrys punishment Henry punished others Henrys punishment Henry was punished by others. The familys supportAlices kindness , Jacks laziness my uncles good luck A childrens hospital ( a hospital for children), a girls college Johns writings , Samuel Johnsons dictionary, Shakespeares Hamlet ,Edisons electric light
The barbers The florists A well-managed barbers a childrens hospital A girls collegeHis girls friend vs his girl friend That idiots boy vs that idiot boyA workers family vs a worker family
Ambiguity Several womens caps Several caps for women The caps belonging to several women An old mans car An old car designed for a man The car belonging to an old man a car designed for an old man That is a gentlemans house ( a house belonging to a gentleman. a house suitable for a gentleman
Government of the people,by the people and for the people by Lincolnthe peoples government, made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people--by Daniel Webster(1782-1852) , an American politician and orator the examination of the fire departmentthe city of New York, the continent of Asia the pleasure of meeting you the departure of the train/ the arrival of the visitors the house of stone, a dress of silk a girl of royal blood, goods of their own manufacture a story of adventure, the events of the decades a man of ability , goods of first-rate quality
Generally speaking, the Ns genitive is favored by the class that are highest on the gender scale,ie,animate nouns, in particular persons and animals with personal gender characteristics. George Washingtons statue, the boys new shirt, the companys working capital, the nations social security, the farm dogs barkGeographical names :Europes future, Chinas development, Londons water supply Locative nouns denoting regions, heavenly bodies, institutions etc. the clubs pianist, the hotel entranceTemporal nouns last years profit (the profit for the last year) an hours drive , three days absence, last weeks meeting., a nine days wonder
Idiomatized Ns NThere are some restrictions with the inflected genitive which can be described in terms of specific lexical noun head, edge permits of while the examples with length, reach, throw, and worth are idiomatized and not permit an of genitive.At arms length, Within arms reachAt a stones throwTheir moneys worthat wits endTo ones heart content In ones mindd eye At death d door
by a hairs breath a birds eye view at a snails pace have somebody at ones fingers ends for Gods sake, arts for arts sake, for healths sake, for humanitys sake,for precautions sake for brevitys sake for pitys sake, for old timess sake for convenience(s) sake, for appearance(s) sake , for old acquaintance (s) sake, for goodness (s) sake a rooms length(its length)its use (the articles use?)
s or ()In personal names ending in sibilant/z/, the genitive ending can either be s or an apostrophe only, but it can only be s when personal names end in other sibilant sounds Dickenss novels or Dickens novels John Waters or John Waters s Archimedes, Socrates, Cervantes(preferred) But Marxs doctrine, Rosss discoveriesThe actresss performance or the actressperformance
Compound nouns ,noun +appositive structure ,and post-modified noun phrasesMy mother-in-laws death (compound noun)Henry the Eighths marriage (noun+appositive)Alexander the greats conquer His sister Marys husband (preferred over his sisters, Marys )Mr. Zhang the headmasters speechThe Prince of Waless helicopter (postmodified)Somebody elses bookEach others books The king of Englands crown The woman you spoke tos husband is a musician.(relative clause)
Compare : Wangs and Zhangs rooms Wang and Zhangs room The students and teachers speechesThe students and teachers speeches (His and his sisters books His books and his sisters (His books and those his sisters (Johns wifes face the face of Johns wife (
He is gone, but his memory remains to guide the living.(Objective Possessive)A monument is dedicated to his memory.His memory is declining.(Subjective Possessive) He has written a long poem in memory of the famous scientist. To the memory of those who died in the anti-fascist war.They hurried to their fathers rescue. (Obj.Poss.)Thanks to their fathers rescue, they could return home safe. (Subj. Poss.)He walked over to the womans aid.He walked over for the womans aid.People were loud in the heros praise. He was drunk with his fathers praise.She has come to sing his praise. She doesnt not want his praise.
Fathers rescue, his rescue, the rescue of their fatherHis choice =the person or thing he has chosenHis want= the want which he feelsIn my sight= where I can seeThe choice of him = the act of choosing himAt the sight of me=seeing me.The prisoners execution has caused a lot of censure.(?) His execution ,but he is unidentified The execution of the prisoner
Contextualized InterpretationAn old sailors storyThe story of an old sailorHe has never recovered from her loss.(Obj.Poss.)She has never recovered her loss.(Subj.Poss.)Johns treatment of the servantJohns treatment by Mary A mothers love of childrenThe love of Browning for ItalyIf you deny my statement, I can produce witness to prove its truth.Its use (the articles use?), a rooms length(its length)
Your house is larger than mine. (absolute form)A friend of mine is desirous of seeing your house.That is no business of yours.That was a shocking mistake of yours.Where did you buy that watch of yours?He has no house of his own.(reflexive possessive)He has no children of her own.I have some reasons of my own for wishing to do so. Among the languages which we describe as foreign, French holds a position of its own.
Attention to the uses of of The city of Nanjing , the State of OhioThe combination of theory and practice , the contribution of science and technology the boys name , but the name of the boy crying under the a treeThe workers proposal, but the proposals of the workers from the steel plant The education of the young is of vital importance. The livelihood of the disabled should be improved. The mystery of the unknown
A picture of Johns father (instead of John;s fathers picture) instead of him. at the bottom of it, for the fun of it , for the life of me, in memory of her, in sight of it That will be the ruin of you. I will break the neck of you. I have not seen the like of it. He will be the death of her. kill her)I do not like the air of him. I do not like the sight of him. The pride of you
Compare At the back of her at her back The death of herher death The thought of him his thoughtHis biography of her her biography The cheek of him his cheek
Double Genitive He is a friend of my fathers.An independent genitive can sometimes be used as prepositional complementation (traditionally known as prepositional object). The prepositional phrase (usually an of-phrase) that takes an independent genitive as complementation is called a double genitive.
Characteristicsa friend of the doctors this brilliant idea of Mrs. Greensthat clever remark of your sisters The independent genitive in the of-phrase must be definite specific personal reference.A patient of a doctors(?) An engine of the planes(?)The noun phrase with a double genitive as postmodifier usually takes an indefinite determiner such as a(n), some, any, etc, or a demonstrative determiner such as this , that to convey emotional feelings.The daughter of Mrs.Greens(?)
Comparison (1)Who told you that ? A friend of your fathers. If he says such things, he is not a friend of my father, whoever he is.He is a friend of my fathers. =He is one of my fathers friends.He is a friend of my father. =He is friendly to my father.A portrait of Mr Browns Mr Brown Mr Brown =one of the portraits owned or collected by Mr BrownA portrait of Mr BrownMr Brown = a picture of Mr Brown himselfA criticism of Mr Hamiltons ( a criticism made by him)A criticism of Mr Hamilton =Mr Hamilton is criticized.
a bone of the dog, A bone of the dogs A dogs bone The Lords Day The Day of the Lordthe Day of Judgment) The Kings English (the standard of English)The English of the King the English spoken or written by the King)
Comparison(2)Europes education( ) European education()Japans agriculture Japanese agriculture(,)Chinas territory Chinese territory ()European literature Europes literature A friend of Jim, Jack and Harry Jims friends a friend of Ji