Science Investigatory Project

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ORANGE (Citrus sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO( ) REPELLANT

A Science Investigatory Project In partial fulfillment of the requirements In Science and Technology III (Chemistry)

To: Mr. Kenny Lloyd Angon Chemistry Teacher

By: Michell Hao Johann Miro Univeer Nudas John Carlo Pancho Alexis Salamilao Christa Soledad Justin Yap March 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page Abstract Acknowledgement List of Figures List of Tables List of Plates Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Literature Conceptual Framework Hypothesis Definition of Terms METHODOLOGY Materials Collection of Orange Disposal 12 12 13 3 10 10 11 1 2 2 i ii iii iv v vi

Methodology Flow Chart RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendation BIBLIOGRAPHY DOCUMENTATION APPENDICES Curriculum Vitae

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ABSTRACT ______________________________________________________________________ Orange (Citrus Sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO (Varies) REPELLANT Michell Grace Hao Alexis Anne Salamilao Johann Vincent Miro John Carlo Pancho Justin Yap Univeer Taisho Nudas Alessandra Soledad Stella Maris Academy of Davao N. Torres St. Obrero, Davao City The researchers made this project to determine the effects of orange peel extract. Also to help in finding simple ways to prevent mosquitoes from harming people. The researchers first bought 9 oranges at the Agdao public market. Then the researchers prepared the materials needed. First the researchers peeled the oranges, the orange peels were grated. The grated orange peels were squeezed to get the extract. Set A remained concentrated with 25% water, Set B with 50% water and set C with 75% water. Then the researchers sprayed it to three different mosquitoes. The result for set A showed the same outcome after three trials, the mosquito died. The same process was done to set B and C. the researches then concluded that the more

concentrates the solutions is the more effective it is. The researches recommends that more test should be conducted and with higher amount of mosquitoes used. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following people who extend their help to make this study successful: To Sir Kenny Lloyd Angon, their Chemistry teacher for guiding them in their Science Investigatory Project. To Mr. and Mrs. Hao for letting the researchers use their house to do their Science investigatory Project. To their friends for inspiring them to persevere and be more serious in doing their science Investigatory project. And above all, to God the Father for His undying guidance that he shed on us throughout this project. M.A.J.J.J.U.C

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number 1 Title Conceptual Paradigm Page

LIST OF TABLES Table number 1 Title Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito Page

LIST OF PLATES Plate Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title Preparation of Materials Peeling of the Orange Grating of the orange Squeezing of the Orange Peel Extract Separating of the Orange peel Extract Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito Page

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Dead Mosquito

INTRODUCTION Background of the study Mosquitoes are a nuisance to the society especially in our health. Is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from the Latin culex meaning midge orgnat).

There are about 3,500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world. In some species of mosquito, the females feed on humans, and are vectors for a number of

infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would have serious consequences for any ecosystem. The researchers chose this research to help in solving the increasing number of people affected by diseases coming from mosquitoes. We observed that orange

absorbs water fast. During the process we observed that the odor of the orange peel extract gets stronger as we squeeze it more thoroughly. Researches and experiments evolve to investigate the effectiveness of orange peel as a mosquito repellant. There were similar researches about this; they used lemon peel to create a repellant. In this study we would like to prove the effectiveness of orange peel as mosquito repellant. The other researches proved the different uses of citrus fruits in preventing diseases. As of now many people are suffering from different diseases caused by mosquito bites. The numbers of affected people are rapidly increasing. This is now causing a problem to the government because many of the affected people are dying. This gives

researches and experiments to think of applicable solutions to prevent these cases and an orange peel as mosquito repellant is one of these researches. According to the World Malaria Report 2010, there were 225 million cases of malaria and an estimated 781 000 deaths in 2009, a decrease from 233 million cases and 985 000

deaths in 2000. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every 45 seconds of malaria and the disease accounts for approximately 20% of all childhood deaths. Statement of the Problem: Will the orange peel extract be able to repel mosquitoes?

What are the components of the orange peel extract that can repel mosquitoes?

Significance of the Study: Using orange peel extract to repel mosquitoes would be a benefit to everybody because it is cheap to make and made from recycling the peels of the oranges that you eat. Now a days, diseases, sicknesses that are caused by mosquitoes are getting more and more each day. Through this, we can help a lot of people and a lot of people would be able to lessen the risks of the mosquitoes in their lives that are surrounding them. Scope and Limitation: This study focuses on how to lessen the risks that are caused by the mosquitoes especially dengue fever that had been a threat to the people for quite some time now. We also focus on how we can let people be able to reach their needs in life, thats why we used cheap materials to create a repellant that would lessen the risks to their health.

RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE (RRL)

Orange The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreenflowering tree generally growing to 910 m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15 m). The leaves are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 410 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry. Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and also for the fragrant peel.] In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the state of Florida in the US. Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit[ for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e.g. Dutch Sinaasappel, "China's apple", or northern German Apfelsine). (In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit)

Vitamin C Is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels, heal wounds and form scar tissue repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth. Citrus Citrus can refer to as a common term or a genus name. In general, citrus includes all species and natural hybrids in Citrus and its closely related genera (sexually compatible with each other to certain extent), such as Poncirus (trifoliate wild lime),

orange), Fortunella (kumquat), Microcitrus (Australian

and Eremocitrus (desert lime). They all belong to the family Rutaceae that is in the order Sapindales, a sister taxon to Brassicales that contains Arabidopsis. The taxonomy of citrus has been very controversial and inconsistent binomial naming are often seen. Even some same species are prefixed with different genus names because some researchers suggested all the above genera to be classified as one genus, Citrus. However, many widely used binomial names, though known not true species, are in popular use, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). From genomic perspectives, most citrus species are diploid (2n = 2x = 18), with relatively small genomes; for instance, sweet orange has a genome of about 380Mb, approximately three times the size of the 125Mb Arabidopsis genome. So far available genomic resources include more than half millions citrus ESTs, most sweet orange

(~90%) and next following by Clementine, trifoliate orange, Satsuma, and other citrus varieties; high density microarrays in several different platforms; several BAC libraries; one sweet orange physical map; and high density linkage maps for sweet orange and Clementine. One haploid Clementine genome are being sequenced using Sanger technology, and one diploid sweet orange genome sequenced using Roche 454 technology. These genome sequence resources and tools will allow geneticists and breeders to more effectively manipulate various traits in breeding programs, and genomicists and bioinformaticians to preform comparative genomic studies on a new taxonomic group. Citrus includes almost all commercially grown citrus species/cultivar groups, producing diverse fruit types including sweet orange