94160414 Science Investigatory Project

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Text of 94160414 Science Investigatory Project

ORANGE (Citrus sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO( ) REPELLANT

A Science Investigatory Project

In partial fulfillment of the requirements

In Science and Technology III (Chemistry)

To:

Mr. Kenny Lloyd AngonChemistry Teacher

By:

Michell Hao

Johann Miro

Univeer Nudas

John Carlo Pancho

Alexis Salamilao

Christa Soledad

Justin Yap

March 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Abstract

i

Acknowledgement

ii

List of Figures

iii

List of Tables

iv

List of Plates

v

Table of Contents

vi

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

1

Statement of the Problem

2

Significance of the Study

2

Scope and Limitation

2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Related Literature

3

Conceptual Framework

10

Hypothesis

10

Definition of Terms

11

METHODOLOGY

Materials

12

Collection of Orange

12

Disposal

13

Methodology Flow Chart

14

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

15

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

16

Recommendation

16BIBLIOGRAPHY

17DOCUMENTATION

18APPENDICES

Curriculum Vitae

22ABSTRACT

______________________________________________________________________

Orange (Citrus Sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO (Varies) REPELLANT

Michell Grace Hao

Alexis Anne Salamilao

Johann Vincent Miro

John Carlo Pancho

Justin Yap

Univeer Taisho Nudas

Alessandra Soledad

Stella Maris Academy of Davao

N. Torres St. Obrero, Davao City

The researchers made this project to determine the effects of orange peel extract. Also to help in finding simple ways to prevent mosquitoes from harming people.

The researchers first bought 9 oranges at the Agdao public market. Then the researchers prepared the materials needed. First the researchers peeled the oranges, the orange peels were grated. The grated orange peels were squeezed to get the extract. Set A remained concentrated with 25% water, Set B with 50% water and set C with 75% water. Then the researchers sprayed it to three different mosquitoes. The result for set A showed the same outcome after three trials, the mosquito died. The same process was done to set B and C. the researches then concluded that the more concentrates the solutions is the more effective it is. The researches recommends that more test should be conducted and with higher amount of mosquitoes used.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to thank the following people who extend their help to make this study successful:

To Sir Kenny Lloyd Angon, their Chemistry teacher for guiding them in their Science Investigatory Project.

To Mr. and Mrs. Hao for letting the researchers use their house to do their Science investigatory Project.

To their friends for inspiring them to persevere and be more serious in doing their science Investigatory project.

And above all, to God the Father for His undying guidance that he shed on us throughout this project.

M.A.J.J.J.U.C

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Number

Title

Page

1

Conceptual Paradigm

LIST OF TABLES

Table number

Title

Page

1 Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito

LIST OF PLATES

Plate Number

Title

Page

1 Preparation of Materials

2 Peeling of the Orange

3 Grating of the orange

4 Squeezing of the Orange Peel Extract

5 Separating of the Orange peel Extract

6 Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito

7 Dead MosquitoINTRODUCTIONBackground of the study

Mosquitoes are a nuisance to the society especially in our health. Is a commoninsectin thefamilyCulicidae(from theLatinculexmeaningmidgeorgnat). There are about 3,500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world. In some species of mosquito, the females feed on humans, and arevectorsfor a number of infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year.Some scientists believe thateradicatingmosquitoes would have serious consequences for any ecosystem.

The researchers chose this research to help in solving the increasing number of people affected by diseases coming from mosquitoes. We observed that orange absorbs water fast. During the process we observed that the odor of the orange peel extract gets stronger as we squeeze it more thoroughly.

Researches and experiments evolve to investigate the effectiveness of orange peel as a mosquito repellant. There were similar researches about this; they used lemon peel to create a repellant. In this study we would like to prove the effectiveness of orange peel as mosquito repellant. The other researches proved the different uses of citrus fruits in preventing diseases.

As of now many people are suffering from different diseases caused by mosquito bites. The numbers of affected people are rapidly increasing. This is now causing a problem to the government because many of the affected people are dying. This gives researches and experiments to think of applicable solutions to prevent these cases and an orange peel as mosquito repellant is one of these researches. According to theWorld Malaria Report 2010, there were 225 million cases of malaria and an estimated 781 000 deaths in 2009, a decrease from 233 million cases and 985 000 deaths in 2000. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every 45 seconds of malaria and the disease accounts for approximately 20% of all childhood deaths.Statement of the Problem:

Will the orange peel extract be able to repel mosquitoes? What are the components of the orange peel extract that can repel mosquitoes?Significance of the Study:

Using orange peel extract to repel mosquitoes would be a benefit to everybody

because it is cheap to make and made from recycling the peels of the oranges that you

eat. Now a days, diseases, sicknesses that are caused by mosquitoes are getting more

and more each day. Through this, we can help a lot of people and a lot of people would

be able to lessen the risks of the mosquitoes in their lives that are surrounding them.

Scope and Limitation:

This study focuses on how to lessen the risks that are caused by the mosquitoes

especially dengue fever that had been a threat to the people for quite some time now.

We also focus on how we can let people be able to reach their needs in life, thats why

we used cheap materials to create a repellant that would lessen the risks to their health.

RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE (RRL)Orange

The orange is ahybridof ancient cultivated origin, possibly betweenpomelo(Citrus maxima) andmandarin(Citrus reticulata).It is anevergreenfloweringtree generally growing to 910m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15m).Theleavesare arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 410cm long.The orangefruitis ahesperidium, a type ofberry.

Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extractorange juice, and also for the fragrant peel.]In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and thestate of Floridain the US.

Oranges probably originated inSoutheast Asiaand were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit ofCitrus sinensisis calledsweet orangeto distinguish it fromCitrus aurantium, thebitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from theSanskrit[for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e.g.DutchSinaasappel, "China's apple", or northern GermanApfelsine).(In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to thepomegranate).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit)Vitamin C Is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels, heal wounds and form scar tissue repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth.

Citrus

Citrus can refer to as a common term or a genus name. In general, citrus includes all species and natural hybrids in Citrus and its closely related genera (sexually compatible with each other to certain extent), such asPoncirus(trifoliate orange),Fortunella(kumquat),Microcitrus(Australian wild lime), andEremocitrus(desert lime). They all belong to the family Rutaceae that is in the order Sapindales, a sister taxon to Brassicales that containsArabidopsis. The taxonomy of citrus has been very controversial and inconsistent binomial naming are often seen. Even some same species are prefixed with different genus names because some researchers suggested all the above genera to be classified as one genus,Citrus. However, many widely used binomial names, though known not true species, are in popular use, such as sweet orange (Citrussinensis[L.] Osbeck).

From genomic perspectives, most citrus species are diploid (2n = 2x = 18), with relatively small genomes; for instance, sweet orange has a genome of about 380Mb, approximately three times the size of the 125MbArabidopsisgenome. So far available genomic res