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Investigatory Project in Science Biology (Improvised Apparatus)

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This is an improvised investigatory project that in titles (Improvised Water Drop Microscope)

Text of Investigatory Project in Science Biology (Improvised Apparatus)

LEONIDES S. VIRATA MEMORIAL SCHOOL De La Salle Supervised School Rio Tuba, Bataraza, Palawan

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

A Requirement in Science and Technology III

Presented to:

Mrs. Marilou A. Madalogdog Subject Teacher

Presented by: Elijah Daniel B. Geanga

Water Drop Microscope

No part of this project is covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced and or used in any form or by any means -- graphic, electronic or mechanical -- without written permission of the publisher.

Introduction The reason that I make an improvise microscope so that I can magnify minute things, can saved resource and I can economize resources instead of buying compound microscope.The purpose of water drop microscope is to observe more accurately objects which are so minute that they cant be seen clearly with the naked eye. Microscope is a device that uses a lens or system of lenses to produce a greatly magnified image of an object. In this project we will use the presence of water drop as the lens. The problem that connects in this project is does a water drop microscope can observe more accurately objects which are so minute that they cant be seen clearly with the naked eye. The answer or hypothesis in the said problem is yes, I think that it can observe more accurately objects which are so minute that they cant be seen clearly with the naked eye. With this part the prime objective of this project is to enhance the knowledge and patience. The concept involved in this project is sufficient to observe general details in the structure of a microscopic organism: pollen grains, detailed parts of an insect or plant cells.

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Table of Contents Introduction.......................................................................................................................4 Review of Related Literature............................................................................................6

Definitions of Terms ...................................................................................6 Parts of the Compound Microscope............................................................7 Significance of the Study............................................................................9

Methodology..................................................................................................................10

Materials...................................................................................................10 Procedure.................................................................................................10 How to use the microscope......................................................................11 Figures......................................................................................................12 How to test................................................................................................12

Data and Results............................................................................................................13

(Specimen) Onion Skin.............................................................................13 (Specimen) Small Letter e.........................................................................14 (Specimen) Ant.........................................................................................14

Bibliography....................................................................................................................15 Recommendations..........................................................................................................16

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Review of Related Studies Microscope is an instrument used to obtain a magnified image of minute objects or minute details of objects. There are two kinds of microscope that are common today like optical microscope and electron microscope. An optical microscope uses transmitted or reflected light to obtain the image. An electron microscope uses a beam of electrons and a system of electron-focusing lenses to obtain images. Many findings like water drop microscope forming a double convex lens from an aperture of about 3mm diameter would produce a magnification roughly about 100x, microscope made up from scraps found around the house that surprisingly powerful, capable of showing not only individual cells, but the nuclei inside the cells and microscope made of recycled materials that is relevant to my problem. My microscope is related to optical microscope and electron microscope because it can also magnify minute things. Only water drop microscope is the easiest to make and cheapest but it is successful. I can say that it has intended result because it can magnify minute things. Definition of Terms 1. obtain [ob tyn] - to get possession of something, especially by making an effort or having necessary qualifications 2. minute [m not] - extremely small in size or scope 3. electrons [i lk trns] - a stable negatively charged elementary particle with a small mass that is a fundamental constituent of matter and orbits the nucleus of an atom Page |6

4. optical [ptik'l] - belonging or relating to the sense of sight 5. beam [beem] - a narrow line of light 6. microscope [mkr skp] - a magnifying instrument that focuses light or other radiation through one or more lenses to form a magnified image of a specimen 7. convex [kn vks] - having a surface that curves outward rather than inward 8. aperture [ppr chor] - a small narrow opening 9. nuclei [noklee ] - a central or most important item or part that has others grouped or built around it. 10. scraps [skraps] - waste material Parts of the Microscope 1. eyepiece - the part you look through contains lenses to increase magnification 2. body tube - holds lenses of eyepieces and objectives at the correct distance from each other 3. coarse adjustment - moves the body tube up and down very rapidly 4. fine adjustment - permits exact focusing by moving the stage or the body tube up or down very slightly 5. arm/pillar - supports the body tube and the coarse adjustment Page |7

6. nosepiece - allows the shift from low-power to high-power objectives 7. objectives - contains lenses of different magnifications: shorter (low-power) objective is 10x; the longer (high-power) objective 40x 8. dust shield - protects the lenses from dust 9. stage - supports the slide over the hole that admits light from the mirror below 10. diaphragm - regulates the amount of light passing through whatever you are looking at 11. stage clips - holds the slide in place 12. base - supports the weight of the microscope 13. mirror - reflects the light upward through the diaphragm and the hole in the stage 14. inclination joint - allows the tilting of the microscope

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Significance of the Study The connotation of my study is I can view minute things and instead of buying compound microscope that is expensive I use cheap materials and other recycled materials. It is important to save or economize resources.

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Methodology Materials: A flat piece of wood 1 x 4 x 6 A piece of plywood 3 x 4 A piece of wood 1 x 2 x 6 A piece of clear glass Ordinary window glass 2 inches square A rectangular or round mirror A piece of wire Plastic cover of pomade which fits mirror A piece of tin cut from a salmon can 1 inch wide and 2 inches long Thumbtacks Procedure: 1. Make a round or square hole on the piece of plywood inch square or inch in diameter. 2. By means of thumbtacks place the glass squarely over the hole. This will serve as the platform.

3. Prepare the microscope stand. 4. Twist a piece of wire and fit the ends on the circumference of the plastic cover containing the mirror. P a g e | 11 5. Make a small hole 1 inches below the platform on the post and place the mirror with wire handle so that it is directly under the hole of the platform. 6. Make a hole in the center of the tin piece with 1 inch finishing nail and smooth the edges with a file. See to it that it is very round. 7. Fold the edges of the tin piece.

How to Use the Microscope: 1. Choose a specimen to observe like the leg of a fly or a strand of hair and place it on the glass above the hole. 2. Set the mirror so that the reflected light is directed toward the hole above. 3. Place the piece of tin (eye-piece) above the specimen). 4. Dip a pencil point into a cup of clear water and place the drop on the hole of tin piece. 5. Locate the specimen through the hole with a water drop on. To obtain a clear view, focus on the object by pressuring the tin piece slightly. Patient focusing

may be needed to see the object clearly. (The water-drop microscope magnifies up to 100 times).

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How to test: After making the microscope, the researcher will ask somebody to rate the specimen seen if it is clear, very clear, extremely clear, not clear and moderately clear. Rating 1 2 3 4 5 Description extremely clear very clear moderately clear clear not clear

Onion Skin Rating: ___________

Small Letter e Rating: ______________

Ant Rating: ______________ P a g e | 13

Data and Results To rate, please use the guidelines below: Rating 1 2 3 4 5 Description extremely clear very clear moderately clear clear not clear

Onion Skin Name: ______________________________________ Date: ___________________ Rating: (no.) _______ (in words) ______________________ Time: _______________ Comments/Suggestions:__________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

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