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CHAPTER 1 Introduction These days, Acne Scars is the most common problem of the teenagers, those who are under stress and who does not get enough sleep. So, we are the researchers who want to help them and made an experiment to make product that can help to lessen the acne scars, then if we successfully do this we can also eliminate the scars permanently. Background of the Study Traditional Chinese herbal medicine uses several citrus peels for specific health support, including those of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata‘Blanco’) and bitter orange (C. aurantium). For hundreds of years, herbalists trained in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have used mature mandarin orange peel, known as chen pi or ju pi in Chinese medicine, to improve digestion, relieve intestinal gas and bloating, and resolve phlegm. This peel acts primarily on the digestive and respiratory systems. We apply it in conditions involving a sense of distension and fullness in the chest and upper middle abdomen combined with loss of appetite, vomiting or diarrhea, or coughs with copious phlegm. Immature mandarin orange peel, known as qing pi in Chinese medicine, acts primarily on the liver and stomach to promote digestion, relieve food retention and abdominal distension, and promote good liver function. Practitioners of Chinese herbology use this herb when the sense of distension and discomfort lies primarily under the rib cage rather than the central abdomen.The Chinese materiamedica states that the rind of the mature bitter orange (zhike) relieves abdominal distension and chest congestion. The rind of the immature bitter orange (zhishi) relieves gas, bloating and constipation. It also dissolves phlegm. Practitioners of TCM consider it more purgative than the mature form. Compounds in Orange Peel May Lower Cholesterol as Effectively as Statin Drugs

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CHAPTER 1IntroductionThese days, Acne Scars is the most common problem of the teenagers, those who are under stress and who does not get enough sleep. So, we are the researchers who want to help them and made an experiment to make product that can help to lessen the acne scars, then if we successfully do this we can also eliminate the scars permanently.Background of the StudyTraditional Chinese herbal medicine uses several citrus peels for specific health support, including those of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulataBlanco) and bitter orange (C. aurantium).For hundreds of years, herbalists trained in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have used mature mandarin orange peel, known aschen piorju piin Chinese medicine, to improve digestion, relieve intestinal gas and bloating, and resolve phlegm. This peel acts primarily on the digestive and respiratory systems. We apply it in conditions involving a sense of distension and fullness in the chest and upper middle abdomen combined with loss of appetite, vomiting or diarrhea, or coughs with copious phlegm.Immature mandarin orange peel, known asqing piin Chinese medicine, acts primarily on the liver and stomach to promote digestion, relieve food retention and abdominal distension, and promote good liver function. Practitioners of Chinese herbology use this herb when the sense of distension and discomfort lies primarily under the rib cage rather than the central abdomen.The Chinese materiamedica states that the rind of the mature bitter orange (zhike) relieves abdominal distension and chest congestion.The rind of the immature bitter orange (zhishi) relieves gas, bloating and constipation. It also dissolves phlegm. Practitioners of TCM consider it more purgative than the mature form.Compounds in Orange Peel May Lower Cholesterol as Effectively as Statin DrugsA class of compounds found in citrus fruit peels called polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) have the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects, according to a study by U.S. and Canadian researchers that was published in theJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 5 In this study, when laboratory animals with diet-induced high cholesterol were given the same diet containing 1% PMFs (mainly tangeretin), their blood levels of total cholesterol, VLDL and LDL (bad cholesterol) were reduced by 19-27 and 32-40% respectively. Comparable reductions were also seen when the animals were given diets containing a 3% mixture of two other citrus flavonones, hesperidin and naringin.Treatment with PMFs did not appear to have any effect on levels of beneficial HDL cholesterol, and no negative side effects were seen in the animals fed the PMF-containing diets.Although a variety of citrus fruits contain PMFs, the most common PMFs, tangeretin and nobiletin, are found in the peels of tangerines and oranges. Juices of these fruits also contain PMFs, but in much smaller amounts. In fact, you'd have to drink about 20 glasses of juice each day to receive an amount of PMFs comparable in humans to that given to the animals. However, grating a tablespoon or so of the peel from a well-scrubbed organic tangerine or orange each day and using it to flavor tea, salads, salad dressings, yogurt, soups, or hot oatmeal, buckwheat or rice may be a practical way of achieving some cholesterol-lowering benefits. The researchers are currently exploring the mechanism of action by which PMFs lower cholesterol. Based on early results in cell and animal studies, they suspect that PMFs work like statin drugs, by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides inside the liver.Statement of the ProblemsThis research aims to find answers to the following problems:1. Is there any effect on the zone of inhibition in the concentration of Citrus sinensis (orange)?2. What makes the skin of the Citrus sinensis peel (orange peel) can remove the acne scars?3. What process is the most effective way to extract an orange peel?

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Hypotheses The researchers hypothesized that:1. There is no significant difference in terms of diameter of the zone of inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus.2. The citrus sinensis peel (Orange peel) has vitamin C that is very beneficially as a natural skin bleacher. Orange peel extract when applied to skin can lighten and cover up dark blemishes and spots. Besides skin whitening, also helps tone the skin, naturally cleanse pores and shield the skin from harmful UV rays. 3. The most effective way is to grind the peel of orange, to get the pure and the zest of orange oil of peel.Significance of the StudyThis study will help promote a smooth and healthy skin. It could useful and helpful to the user to removed their scars, and also it can remove other skin problems and make lighter your skin and have a clean face without scars.

Scope and DelimitationsOrange facial scrub is a nutritious facial cleanser but can cause allergy to the person if they have an allergic on the main ingredients that the researchers used. The product is the newly variation of Facial scrub because of people who already sick in use of facial scrub can preferably choose the product. The respondents of this study are the students and teachers of Justice Cecilia Muoz Palma High School for the school year 2014 2015.

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Definition of TermsThe following words or terms are used in this study:

Phosphorous -It is needed for the body tomake proteinfor the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues.Vitamin C -antioxidant Propionibacterium acnesactivatesmacrophages,increasesproliferationoflymphoblasts,andstimulatesresistancetobacterialinfection.Usedasabacterialimmunostimulant.Citrus Sinensis

- Scientific term of orange. A taxonomicspecieswithin thefamilyRutaceae the sweet orange ororange.

Acne

-Acne is a common skin disease characterized by pimples on the face, chest, and back. It occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria.

Scars

-amarkleftbyahealedwound,sore,orburn and scars.

Agar Plate

-Is aPetri dishthat contains agrowth medium(typicallyagarplus nutrients) used toculturemicroorganismsor small plants like themossPhyscomitrella patens.

12 Justice Cecilia Muoz Palma High School

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRACTED ORANGE PEEL (Citrus sinensis) AS A FACIAL CLEANSER FOR THE ACNE SCARS CAUSE BY PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNES.

Submitted:

ANTONIO, JOHN LEE

CORDANO, HYGEN Jr. Z.

CANCILLER, RHONNA E.

FERNANDEZ, CHIMBERLY V.

ORDONIO, KYLIE NICOLE

ROMERO, KAZE P.

TORRES, ELLA MARIE F.

VELASCO, TRIXIA V.

ZEPEDA, LEKIDA ANGELA

July 2014APPROVAL SHEETDear Mr. Denis Dyvee R. Errabo,We would like to have an approval to our research entitled,THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRACTED ORANGE PEEL (Citrus sinensis) AS A FACIAL CLEANSER FOR THE ACNE SCARS CAUSE BY PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNES, this isprepared and submitted by The Researchers.Please let me know if I have your approval to proceed or I can provide additional information.

Sincerely,

_______________________ Mr. Denis Dyvee R. Errabo

July 7, 2014

IIIACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The completion of this research was made possible with the help of individuals who gave generously of their time, efforts, knowledge, and supports. This science investigatory project was pushed. It is with gratitude to extend to them the authors deep appreciation:To the Justice Cecilia Munoz Palma High School, our school, for being an instrument in making my dream into a reality and for your constant guidance, constructive criticisms, and valuable suggestions in the improvement of this study.To Mr.Denis Dyvee R. Errabo, our Science Teacher, for his untiring endeavor and endurance in helping me by giving corrections, suggestions and constructive criticisms stimulated me to carryon to improve this study, for your steadfast support and encouragement, and for unselfishly sharing of your time and efforts.To My co-proponents, for your full support, cooperation, patience, commitment, perseverance, and efficient performance.To our Family, whose patience and unconditional love have shared the author a greatinspiration towards the accomplishment of this worthy of note study and the one that gave us money to use for contribution and making Science Investigatory ProjectTo our Inspiration, whose inspire us in every second, minute, and hour to successfully do this Science Investigatory Project.To Romero Family, who allowed us to use their personal computer for us to make this research and allowing us to stay in their house.To God Almighty, to whom all the glory belongs with praise and thanksgiving, without whose spiritual blessings and guidance to this work, as many others would not have been possible and , for giving us the grace, the wisdom and perseverance of seeing his creations in a new kind of way.And to the rest, whom I failed to mention, thanks for making this thesis possible thank you for all your support and for believing on us and for providing what we need in making this project a successful one.

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Table of contentsPageTitle Page Acknowledgement ........ IDedication ... IIApproval Sheet .. III Abstract. IV Chapter 1Introduction... 5 Background of the study .. 5 Statement of the problems .......... 6Hypotheses.... 7Significance of the study ... 7 Scope and the limitation ... 7 Chapter 2Evaluation, Design and Framework... 8 Discussion of Expected Output and Justification.. 8 Theoritical Framework 9 Conceptual Framework.. 10 Variables 11Definition of terms .. 12

Chapter 3Research Methodology . 13Research Design.. 13Setting of the Study. 13Subject of the study. 14Procedure of the study 14Sources of Data. 15Statistical Treatment 15

Chapter 4Findings.. 16

Chapter 5Summary of Findings 17Conclusions 17Bibliography 18

CHAPTER 2EVALUATION, DESIGN AND FRAMEWORKIn this chapter, the researchers will explain on what product is all about. The researchers will evaluate the process of making the facial cleanser using Citrus Sinesis peel (Orange). The researchers give an appropriate design of the product that we want be to conduct. Also the variables that the researchers used, And these are using methodologies, dependent, independent and other article. The researchers may prove that this orange peel are effectively can kill the microorganisms that causing acne scars.Discussion of Expected Output and JustificationThis experiment is about the Citrus Sinesis peel (Orange) extracted use as a main ingredient to make a facial cleanser. The researchers conduct this output because Orange peel can remove the acne scars. It is more affordable than to others and it is easy to make product. The researchers want to prove that herbal tea with main ingredient Citrus sinensis (Orange peel) is effective in removing acne scars, and the researchers expect that the possible result is positive. So the researchers wants to prove that orange peel can remove the acne scars, By using of this ingredient Citrus Sinensis (Orange peel). Because Citrus Cinensis contains of Vitamin c and it is very beneficial as a natural skin bleacher.Therefore if youll use it you will get enough naturally cleanse pores and shield the skin from harmful UV rays to certainly protect your skin and avoid Propionibacterium acnes that causes acne scars.

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Based on the research, Citrus sinensis (Orange peel) is a source of the flavonoids blumeatin, flavone and quercetin.Flavonoids or bioflavonoids are plant pigments which act like antioxidants, protecting our skin from being damaged by free radicals. Initial findings show that theCitrus sinensis extracted from orange peel may protect our skin. Still other studies show that extracts fromorange. Investigations further opened up the possibility that the citrus sinensisfrom peel oforangemay be a strong antioxidant and inflammatory, and have other anti-aging health benefits such as keeping skin supple and looking young and healthy. Orangeextracts also display antifungal, antibacterial and antihistamine activities. It is an expectorant and Orange peel can be prepared as a facial cleanser that helps remove the scars. Because Orange peels pack in the vitamin C, with 8.2 mg in a single tablespoon of peel. Other vitamins include riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, folate, vitamin A, vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-5. The peels mineral content includes 10 mg of calcium along with small amounts of iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and selenium. And the outer layer of an orange peel contains orange oil. This essential oil can be used in soaps and water-less hand cleaners. The oil is a solvent, so it can effectively clean your skin without the use of hazardous chemicals. Orange oil is also used as a scent in perfumes and cleaning products. Vitamin c in oranges is very beneficial as a natural skin bleacher. Orange peel extract when applied to skin can lighten and cover up dark blemishes and spots. Orange peels are safe to use on skin.

9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKI.P.O ParadigmInput- In this study the researchers input is theCitrus Sinesis peel (Orange). The researchers choose this as main ingredient to test if it is effective. Process the researchers choose the first process by gathering materials it is because the researcher cannot start without it. Then culturing the bacteria that will be use to test Citrus Sinesis peel (Orange)extract. Next the isolating the bacteria, doing the product (facial cleanser), testing the product and then observe the result.Output After doing the process the researchers make a product that can cure the acne scars.

10The Variables, Their definitions and Importance of the Study

Independent variable:Citrus Sinesis peelCitrus Sinesis peel (Orange)is an herbal medicine usually grows in the Philippines in open grassland, and a widely used herbal treatment in the country. It is known for its remarkable treatment for anti-acne scars and use from face problems.

Dependent variable:Citrus Sinesis peel facial cleanser- in our culture tea is very effective alternative to lessen the acne scars, taken as cleanser, the peel of orange help control the acne scars. The researchers use this for its tested and recommended herbal medicine.

Controlled variable:Chloramphenicol- is the controlled variable because it is has the standard of significance. The researchers can say it is significance if it passed the standard of the measure of the zone of inhibition of the controlled variable.

Importance of the study: To help the number of people who has acne marks and according to the study the most prone of it are the people lack in vitamins especially in vitamin C which is more important toor some water that is not totally filtered neither raw

11 CHAPTER 4FINDINGSPresentations Analysis and Interpretation of DataCitrus sinensis peel (Orange)

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The graph shows about the result of different steps in extraction of Citrus sinensis peel (Orange). The result is very clear that the researchers can get more extract if the leaves of Citrus Sinensis peel (Orange) grind, also the researchers consider to cleanliness of the materials. 16 CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The researchers tested their extract in Natural Science Research Institute (NSRI) in University of the Philippines, to test the effectiveness of the Citrus sinensis to the Propionibacteriumacnes . The researchers use the leaves of Orange peel as the main subject of the research and used 100 % concentration. Microbial suspension was prepared from 24-hour old culture of the test organism. The suspending medium use was 0.1% peptone water. Pre-poured Nutrient Agar (NA) plates, about 3 mm thick, were inoculated with the microbial suspension by swabbing the agar surface. The cotton on swab on an applicator stick was dipped into the microbial suspension, rotated several time and pressed firmly on the inside wall of the tube above the fluid level to remove excess inoculums from the swab. The swab was streaked over the entire agar surface. This procedure was repeated in two more times, rotating the plate 60 degree each time to ensure even distribution of the inoculums. Three equidistant wells were on the agar plate using a cork bore (10mm diameter). Two hundred (200) l of the sample was placed in each well. For the positive control, a chloramphenicol disc was placed on the center of the agar plate. The NA plates were incubated at 35C and observed after 24 hours. The clearing zone was measured in millimeters and the average diameter of the clearing zones was calculated. The antimicrobial index (Al) was the following formula: RESEARCH DESIGNThe researchers know that there are many ways to conduct this experiment thats why the researchers think the best way to introduce the product that the researchers made. The researchers manipulate one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables the researchers used. The researchers has a gatherings thow to done this investigatory project. The researchers assigned in different task or chapters to done it to have an easy way to finish the experiment. If every researchers done with their task it is the time they gather and start planning about the said investigatory project. The researchers got some info in books and internet to have an acceptable research. SETTING OF THE STUDYThis study was conducted at the researchers house where located in Lower Molave St. Payatas B Quezon City. The researchers used this place because they are comfortable; this place is also near in some store where the researchers can find some of the ingredients that will be used in the study, also in Bulacan St. Payatas B Quezon city where the researchers used this place to make a document about their studies. The testing was held in Natural Science Research Institute (NSRI), where in University of the Philippines, Diliman. 13 SUBJECT OF THE STUDY Citric acid (CA), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is found in a variety of acidic fruit juices, particularly in the citric ones, although its extraction from natural sources, primarily lemon, was gradually replaced by biological procedures, mainly based on the use of microfungi, which are currently the most widely used. The production of CA was described in 1893 by Wehmer as a result of the metabolism of the fungusPenicillium glaucum(49). In 1913, it was obtained the first patent in the United States for a method of producing CA byAspergillus nigerin sugar solutions. Recent estimates put the global production of CA in over 1.4 million tons per year (49) with rising trend in demand. More than 50 % of this volume is being produced in China. It is traditionally used in the food industry thanks to its high solubility, extremely low toxicity, and palatability; moreover, examples are given of some recent CA applications in the industry of detergents and cosmetics, or as the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. Therefore, the study was all about the health benefits of Citric acid and the traditionally used of orange peel as the cosmetics all over the world. And the good effects to the ability to support healthy collagen formation, that gives skin smooth, radiant, good appearance, helps tone the skin, naturally cleanse pores. For all in all there is possibility to remove acne scars of orange peel. PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY

Ingredients: Materials:1. Orange Peel 1. Glass2. Milk 2.Serving Spoon3. Water 3.BlenderProcedure: First, you need to complete all the materials before doing the products. Second, get the peel of the orange Third, get the blender and put the peel of orange and push the grind button in the blender. Fourth, put the milk and water and mix it with grindpeel of orange Lastly, after mixing all put it in a glass. 14SOURCES OF DATAThe researchers tested their extract in Natural Science Research Institute (NSRI) in University of the Philippines, to test the effectiveness of the Citrus sinensisto thePropionibacterium acnes.Natural Science Research Institute (NSRI) is the one who tested the extract and they use Agar Plate, Microbal suspension and Chorampinecol.

STATISTICAL TREATMENTFrequency

Is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unittime. It is also referred to astemporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast tospatial frequencyandangular frequency. Theperiodis the duration of onecyclein a repeating event, so the period is thereciprocalof the frequency. Percentage

Is a number orratioexpressed as afractionof 100. It is often denoted using thepercent sign, "%", or the abbreviation "pct."

15CHAPTER 5

Teenagers main problem are their acne scars, we are finding solution for this problem. We are the researches whos going to use Citrus sinensis (Orange) to prepared a facial cleanser, it is a cleanser that can remove Acne Scars. Summary of Findings 1. The researches made a lab test. The lab test result is negative. Therefore the Citrus sinensis (Orange) cannot be used to make a cleanser.2. The nutrients that Citrus sinensis (Orange) has to remove the acne scars are potassium, sulfur, phosphorus3. and vitamin C, but its not compatible to the nutrients that orange had, thats why the result is negative.4. No, because the lab test result is negative. We cant use the potage skin lotion to our skin.

Conclusions1. Orange is rich in nutrients that can remove acne scars, also to remove the signs of other marks, but if we mixed it with the nutrients, the orange have it cant be used to remove the acne scars.2. Although the Orange has rich in vitamins or nutrients it cant remove the acnes scars. Because when we did our lab test or our experiment the result is negative.3. The substances that Orange are, rich in vitamin C, protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium. So that if our lab test or our experiment result positive, we easy to remove the acne scars on our face. But our lab test result is negative.

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Bibliography

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=37

http://www.motherearthliving.com/health-and-wellness/citrus-peel-medicine.aspx#axzz3FT29KPcJ

http://www.healwithfood.org/health-benefits/navel-oranges-sweet.php#ixzz3FcL1RNZIhttp://healthmunsta.hubpages.com/hub/Benefits-of-Orange-Peelshttp://www.stylecraze.com/articles/amazing-benefits-of-orange-peels-for-beauty-and-health/http://www.livestrong.com/article/482147-health-benefits-of-orange-peels/http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822011000100049

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DEDICATIONBefore this investigatory project has finished, the enormous help of every members were satisfied the result of our project. We have done different ways just to meet our goals. And of course, there were people who were comprised with our success.First, we dedicatedly given our project to God. He has been omnipresent in doing our projects and paves us whatever we wanted to propose. He first encouraged us in pursuing our project. Without Him, we cannot totally ended it well. By His strength and wisdom, we have peacefully done this project. Second, to our family who supported us to make this research done through from financial and physical. We coped their suggestions for the enhancement of our project. Without these, its not facile to conclude. Moreover, they help us to alleviate our burdens. For our beloved students and respondents who helped us the entire research to make it accurate and genuine. All their opinions about our research had helped a lot. And health is the very concern, our research is dedicatedly given also for the students who are somehow very conscious from theiselves. As our target specimen, we are inspired to do this for them at most. Lastly, we dedicatedly give this research to none other than our passionate teachers. From their advices and views that makes our research complete and favorable in our society. What in need in our research has made the half of our success with our teachers. Also, it was vulnerably helped us to make the best out of us from our potential and efforts. We are more likely knew what we can and we cant by doing thihs research and of course, it is because of our teachers. They implemented this activity stretch us and out in our comfort zones.From our work, the prime and the final, we acknowledge these people and God who has the big part and factor.s to pursue our research. If we still have the chance to do it anew, we will not doubt to do this. Our research, hoping and praying will givea big help to each and everyone. This research is not cinch but it makes easy because of the people around us. Our puspose is not to harm but to help.

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ABSTRACTThe researchers made this project to determine the effects of orange peel extract in removing acne scars. First, you need to complete all the materials before doing the products, second put the peel of orange inside the refrigerator and get it after 1 week, third, get the blender and put the peel of orange and push the grind button in the blender, fourth, put the milk and water and mix it with grind peel of orange. Lastly, after mixing all put it in a blender. The researchers do this experiment for the people who are suffering from their acne scars, so that they will not spend more money to buy different cosmetics just to remove it. Orange peel helps us in whitening our skin; Vitamin C in oranges is very beneficial as a natural skin bleacher. Orange peel extract when applied to skin can lighten and cover up dark blemishes and spots especially in our face. Orange peels are safe to use on removing acne scars. Just be sure to rub the peel lightly on your face and also use diluted orange peel pastes to prevent burns. Orange peels are the thick finely-textured and orange colored skin of oranges. Since ancient times, orange peels have been valued for their curative properties. Many of us normally throw out the peels when it comes to oranges-whether were making fresh orange juice, snacking on whole oranges or making a yummy citrus salsa. But this is one big mistake as many of the highly nutritious compounds of oranges are found in the peels.

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