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REVIEWARTICLE Vera CHINENOVA Goryachkin s agricultural mechanics · PDF file 2016-02-08 · namely, agricultural mechanics by academician V. P. Goryachkin (1868–1935) who was an

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  • REVIEWARTICLE

    Vera CHINENOVA

    Goryachkin’s agricultural mechanics

    © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

    Abstract The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician V. P. Goryachkin (1868–1935) who was an apprentice of N. Y. Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

    Keywords theory of mechanisms and machines, agricul- tural machinery engineering, agricultural mechanics

    1 Introduction

    The legacy of academician V. P. Goryachkin is centered on the development of theory of mechanisms and machines. His works are the basis for large-scale development of the theory and practice of creating new, high-production, and effective machines and systems of machines. These machines helped solve many problems related to national economy and explored natural laws, which can be used in the future. V. P. Goryachkin, a remarkable scientist and theoretician

    of agricultural machinery engineering, laid the foundation for a new scientific discipline called “agricultural mechanics.” Goryachkin was an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and an academician of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKh- NIL) [1].

    2 Biographical notes on V. P. Goryachkin

    Vasilii Prokhorovich Goryachkin (Fig. 1) was born in Moscow on January 29, 1868 to a family of craftsmen. He was raised by his elder brother because his mother died

    when he was three years old and he lost his father at the age of 12. He studied at a gymnasium on a full board-and- lodging basis. He graduated with honors from the Mathematical Division of the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow University in 1890 and the Emperor’s Moscow Technical School (currently known as Bauman Moscow Technical University) in 1894. He chose locomotives as the subject of his graduate thesis at the Moscow Higher Technical School. This choice could be attributed to the fact that his father and uncle worked at the railroad. Goryachkin mastered nine European languages during his studies at higher educational institutions. At both higher institutions, his teacher and tutor was Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (Fig. 2). At the end of the 19th century, Russia needed specialists

    in applied mechanics, particularly experts in the use of agricultural machines. The Department of Agriculture dispatched Goryachkin abroad to prepare for academic and scientific work. During his business trips to Germany and France, he realized that no actual science of agricultural machines and tools was established in these countries. At the time, the science of agricultural machinery was only a description of the structure of machines and tools and a compilation of practical instructions on their usage, assembly, setting, and adjustment. This compilation also included information on the performance and cost of machines, as well as the number of working people and the amount of moving force required. The content of such a

    Received July 16, 2015; accepted December 13, 2015

    Vera CHINENOVA (✉) Mathematics and Mechanics Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia E-mail: [email protected]

    Fig. 1 Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868–1935)

    Front. Mech. Eng. DOI 10.1007/s11465-016-0378-x

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  • “descriptive machine building” was far from being a true scientific discipline to understand the technological principles of operating machines and the mechanical basis of constructing machines. Upon arrival from foreign travel in 1896, V. P.

    Goryachkin was appointed acting Associate Professor in agricultural machinery, tools, and engines at the Moscow Agricultural Institute (Fig. 3). At the very beginning of his scientific and educational work as a professor, Goryachkin focused on searching for and developing theoretical principles to calculate and construct machines. He developed his own scientific approach. He studied many different machines and tools with various purposes. Plows, horse drives, grain binders, mowers, various threshers, separators, and others, which differed significantly, were a vast agglomeration of instruments that were neither considered by science nor examined or described techni- cally.

    3 Establishing “agricultural mechanics”

    First, examining this machinery based on its diversity is necessary to carefully consider and classify different kinds

    of machines, clarify the main tasks of studying every type of tool and machine, and determine the fundamentals of developing theoretical and calculation methods for all machines. Thus, answering these problems would be the subject of the science that deals with agricultural machines and tools. Eventually, Goryachkin laid out the funda- mentals of this new science and called it agricultural mechanics [2]. Goryachkin stressed on many occasions that the

    development of applied sciences, including agricultural mechanics, was only possible when these applied sciences are based on fundamental sciences, such as mathematics, physics, and other fields. He laid the foundation for the agricultural branch of technical sciences, a new engineer- ing specialization, and a novel approach for engineering education. V. P. Goryachkin was an outstanding specialist in

    agricultural machinery. However, his most significant contribution was creating a philosophy of agricultural mechanics as a domain of science and technology. He was the best in Russia and the world in formulating scientifically valid requirements for constructing machines and developing types of agricultural machines, as well as in identifying future research directions to develop this area. The scientific works of Goryachkin are considered as

    classics in the field of technical sciences. Aside from developing a theory of agricultural machinery, he also contributed fundamental theoretical aspects in his works, such as the theory of masses and velocities, impact and destruction of materials, a wedge, cutting, similarity, and a general scheme of natural phenomena and processes. To test machines, he created instruments in agriculture, metalwork, and machine building, such as soil hardness tester, profilographs, dynamographs, and others. The task of establishing and developing agricultural

    mechanics spanned many years. V. P. Goryachkin taught the course “Theory of Agricultural Machines and Tools” starting from the first year (Fig. 4). Nevertheless, the earliest lithographic prints of Goryachkin’s lectures on this course appeared as far back as 1897, and all the remaining lists were uncovered in 1898.

    Fig. 2 N. Y. Zhukovsky (1847–1921)

    Fig. 3 V. P. Goryachkin

    Fig. 4 V. P. Goryachkin in the laboratory

    2 Front. Mech. Eng.

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  • The Moscow Agricultural Society organized exhibitions of agricultural machines and tools in 1896, 1897, 1898, 1903, 1908, 1909, and 1910. These exhibitions were held at Butyrskii Khutor, a property of the Society, which was located in the vicinity of the Moscow Agricultural Institute. Goryachkin actively participated in these exhibi- tions since 1897 as a supervisor during the testing of the machines at the show. Since 1903, he was the chairman of expert commissioners at these exhibitions. These exhibi- tions and tests of machines and tools that were organized by V. P. Goryachkin provided him with original material to study machine constructions and determine the theoretical principles of their work and structure (Fig. 5).

    The first printed work by Goryachkin, Moldboard, was published in 1898. It was written as a result of examining the shapes of the working surfaces of plow bases using profilometer measurements at the 1897 exhibition. Goryachkin explained why it was important to study the

    moldboard when the work of a plough is characterized. “The working parts of the plough are the chisel, the share and the moldboard; the chisel makes a vertical cut, the share makes a horizontal cut, and the moldboard lifts and throws up a rectangular-sectioned slice, turning the upper stratum down. The furrow slice is loosened somewhat, keeping its form. Or it may completely break down into separate, greater or smaller pieces” [3]. Goryachkin invented devices for agricultural engineer-

    ing, such as soil hardness tester, profilograph, dynamo- graph, and others. By using the profilograph, he studied the forms of moldboards of different ploughs and formulated a method to design these moldboards. The monograph Moldboard contains the theoretical analysis of the experimental data and the application of mechanical principles. The work begins with the following words: “The theory of every tool should answer two questions. 1) What form should be the working parts of the tool in order to operate most effectively? 2) What dimensions should all the tool components (working and non-working parts) have and how (should they) be located in order to manage the tool in the most convenient way, spending effort as

    small as possible?” [3]. Goryackin emphasized tha

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