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Organizational Design of Projects & Project Start Process Roland Gareis Bucharest, December 9-11, 2010 1

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Organizational Design of Projects & Project Start ProcessRoland Gareis Bucharest, December 9-11, 20101

ObjectivesDeveloping an understanding about methods for the design of projects as temporary organizations the project start process Cyclic learning approach presentations, examples from industry application of methods on real projects discussions Not objectives: Project planning and controlling methods

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ScheduleWorkshop 1 Introduction Traditional project organization models New organization models: Empowerment, integration, partnering Workshop 2 Project organization charts Project roles: project owner, project manager, etc. Responsibility chart and project communication structures Workshop 3 Project team work and leadership Project culture Project start process3

PROJEKTMANAGEMENT GROUP

PMG: EducationDepartment of the WU Vienna - University of Economics and Business Administration since 1994 Education programmes Special subject Project Management within the master programmes Professional MBA Project & Process Management Contribution to the IT bachelor programme: IS Project Management pm lectures and pm events (in cooperation with RGC) happy projects events tough changes events Facilitator of PMUni an international network of universities

PMG: ResearchProject management: SustPM Management in the project-oriented company : HR Social competence for projects Managing changes by projects

Basic Scientific Paradigms and Research ProcessSocial systems theory Radical constructivism and not critical rationalism Qualitative social research and not quantitative research methods

Process Map of the PMGStudents, Community

Auftrags Abwicklung A

Auftrags Abwiclung B

Angebots legung

Service

Performing a Course

Agreeing on, Supervising a Master or PhD Thesis

Proposing, performing research

Organizing a pm lecture

Cooperating in a pm event

Performing PMBA program

Service

Primary Processes

Planning the courses

Product development

Markt Produkt Infrastructure Management

Managing Partner Relations

Marketing & PR

PR

Defining Research Topics

Secundary Processes

Personnel Management

Strategic Planning

Project Portfolio Management

Tertiary Processes

ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Vienna

We are management experts. Our consultants are management experts. Our high-qualitative consulting and and training services are based on Our high-qualitative consulting training services are based on RGC RGC processRGC RGC , projectRGC, companychangeRGC and socialRGC. RGC. process , project , company , RGC, changeRGC and social

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ROLAND GAREIS CONSULTING Bucharest

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projectRGC

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Project Management ProcessProject assigned

Project StartingProject Coordinating

Project Controlling Resolving a Project Discontinuity Project Closing-Down

Project approved12

Project Management Objects of Consideration

Scope

Schedule

Costs

Scope, schedule, costs, and ... Objectives, resources, income, risks Organization and culture, personnel, infrastructure Context: Pre-, post-project phase, relevant environments, other projects, company strategies, business case

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Design of Project Organizations: ObjectivesCreation of a competitive advantage Promotion of the evolution in the project organization during the project performance Organizational design contingent on relationships with clients, partners applied management paradigm

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Design of Project Organizations: ElementsProject organization chart Project role descriptions Description of project communication structures Project responsibility matrix Project organization rules

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Traditional Project Organization Models

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Formal Authorities in Projects

Project Project Manager Manager

Line Line Manager Manager

Project Project Team Team Member Member

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Distribution of AuthoritiesProject ManagerWhat? How well? Who? How? How much? When?Pure-line Project Organization Matrix-ProjectOrganization Influence ProjectOrganization 18

Line Manager

Pure Line Project OrganizationProjec tProcure mentProduc tio n

OwnerF&E

Projec t mana ger

Market in

g

Base Organization

Project Organization19

Influence Project OrganizationCEO/Project Owner CEO/Project Owner

Project Project Manager A Manager A

Controlling Controlling

Procurement Procurement

Production Production

R&D R&D

Marketing Marketing

Project Team Member20

Matrix Project OrganizationCEO CEO

Procurement Procurement Project Project Owner A Owner A Project Project Manager A Manager A

Production Production

R&D R&D

Marketing Marketing

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Authorities in the Matrix Project Organization

What? When? How much? Project Project Manager Manager

Line Line Manager Manager

Who? How? How well?

Project Project Team Team Member Member

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GW: Traditional Project Organization ModelsObjectives Reflecting the traditional project organization models Contents Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the traditional project organization models Questions to the models Working form Group discussions: 10; taking notes Plenary discussion

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Empowerment

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The Matrix-Project Organization is dead!A hierarchy of control is not lean. It is too slow and too expensive. It is not customer oriented.

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Design Element: EmpowermentEmpowerment of the project team members Responsibility for the How? and How well? Expert pool managers (instead of department heads) responsible for the Who? Empowerment of the project team Common project responsibility of team members Empowerment of the project Minimum interventions from the base organization Project autonomy is required!

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Empowerment: Project Team Member, Project Team

What? When? How much?

Project team Project manager

Expert Pool manager

Who?

Project team Project team member member

How? How well?

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Project Organization Chart: EmpowermentProject Project contributor contributor

Sub team

2

Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor

Project TeamProject team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager

Project Project contributor contributor

Subteam 1

P ro jec t

Project Project contributor contributor

Or ga

nis a

tio

n

Project Project owner team owner team28

Integration

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Hierarchies of Project OrganizationsClients Clients Project Organization Project Organization General Contractors General Contractors Project Organization Project Organization Sub-Contractors Sub-Contractors Project Organization Project Organization Sub-sub Contractors Sub-sub Contractors Project Organization Project Organization

~

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Parallel Project OrganizationsInvestor Network Contractor Billing Contractor

Project Owner Project Owner

Project Owner Project Owner

Project Owner Project Owner

PM PM Technical Technical Experts Experts Billing Billing Experts Experts Technical Technical Experts 11 Experts

PM PM Technical Technical Experts 33 Experts Billing Billing Experts 11 Experts

PM PM Billing Billing Experts 33 Experts

Organisational Organisational Experts 22 Experts

Technical Technical Experts 22 Experts

Billing Billing Experts 22 Experts

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Organizational ShortcomingsParallel project organizations and hierarchies of project organizations too slow and too expensive Cultural and structural misunderstandings several project managers and project teams in one project

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Project Owner Team

Project Manager Technical Expert Organizations Expert Commercial Expert

Subteam Technics

Subteam Organization

Project Organization Subteam BillingTechnical contractor Billing contractor 33 Investor

Design Element: IntegrationRepresentatives of different organizations in the project team Possible partners external: clients, partners, suppliers, sub suppliers, authorities,... internal: different profit units of the company, subsidiaries,... Basis: Common project management competences, trust, common history, clear objectives Separation of contracts and organizations Definition of the project boundaries from the investors point of view Common project objectives and project plans Open books?

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Partnering

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Design Element: PartneringIntegration of the partners by contractual agreement common incentive systems

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Alliance, an excellent solution to meet Project Execution ChallengesPresentation at the 16th IPMA World Congress 6 June 2002, Berlin H.D. van Wieren, Fluor Daniel BV

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Ruhr Oel Project ObjectivesStart EPC-Engineering Procurement Construction work 2 January 2000 Construction work to fit the turn-around schedules Last plant ready for operation 1 August 2001 Cost should be fitting the low refining margins Due to severe time constraints Ruhr Oel elected to execute the project in a for Germany new execution concept: an Alliance

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Selected Contract FormOne Alliance contract (36 pages) Five partners Client Ruhr Oel (Germany) Engineering contractor Fluor Daniel (The Netherlands) Civil contractor (Germany) (France) (Belgium)

Piping/mechanical contractor Electrical/instruments contractor All expenses are being paid at cost Sharing of over/under-run of target price Bonus for timely completion No claims allowed against other partners

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Key Project ObjectivesSchedule; end schedule plus shutdown schedules Budget; under-run the Target Price Quality; of the parts and the total Safety; Meet Fluor standards Relationships; good relationships and communication Meet statutory requirements; no negative publicity Make the Alliance a success

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Project ExecutionAll partners had their own Quality Management system Fluor Daniel system, founded on TQM, formed the basis Operating System Requirements Operating System Implementation Plan SHE Management System Knowledge On-Line Project Activity Model Project Execution Plan/ Project Procedures Manual Alignment meetings used to share information and to get involvement and buy-in by project personnel

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Key Project ResultsIn spite of 25% increase in work due to scope development and added scope during the EPC phase: Project completed on time; shutdowns not delayed Cost 9% under Target Price Plants operating as specified and meeting quality standards No LTIs; incidence rate 0.65 (limit 0.90) Good relationships prevailed; excellent communication All authority requirements fulfilled and positive publicity The Alliance is considered very successful by all involved

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Alliance Basic Engineering (months) Bidding and Evaluation EPC (months) EPC phase Delays due to changes Change orders Contract form Flexibility Cooperation between parties Team satisfaction Competitive bidding 6 0 19 0 open book at cost with incentives high high high very difficult

Normal 8 - 10 3 24 2 closed lump sum limited limited varying possible

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ConclusionsThe applied Alliance approach of mutual trust and cooperation enabled us to achieve the desired, very challenging, project targets A very attractive way of working for all people involved Possible in a multi-cultural environment Financially attractive for all parties People are the key element !

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GW: New Project Organization ModelsObjectives Reflecting the new project organization models Contents Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of the new project organization models empowerment, integration, partnering Questions to the models Working form Group discussions: 15; taking notes Plenary discussion

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Project Organization Chart

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Project Organization Chart: Engineering CompanyProject Manager Advisory Board

PM Assistant

Technical Expert

Comissioner

Site Manager

Procurement Expert

Logistics Expert

Matrix-Project Organization Pure Project Organization

etc.

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Organization Chart: Reorganization of Swissair (1990)Steering Committee

Project Management

Project Team48

Project Organization ChartProject Project contributor contributor

Sub team

2

Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor

Project TeamProject team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager

Project Project contributor contributor

Subteam 1

Project Project contributor contributor

Project OrganisationProject Project owner team owner team49

Project Organization ChartA model of the project reality Presentation of roles (and communication structures), not persons Different presentations of the project organization provide different information Symbolic project management The chart is an artefact of the project culture Boxes or bubbles, size of boxes, shadows behind boxes, ... Quality standards: Date, version, responsible person Adaption over time, as the project evolves A communication instrument

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Project Roles

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List of Project Roles: ExampleProject role Project owner team Project manager Project team member: Construction Project team member: Engineering Project team member: Procurement Project contributor: Engineering Sub team: Engineering Name XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

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Role Characteristics: Project ManagerNames Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the project; realizing the project objectives; directing the project team and the project contributors; representing the project to relevant project environments; preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment One person; in practice sometimes two persons Content work Project management, competences regarding the projectperforming organizations, the products, the technologies Project management expert pool, from the external personnel market53

Project manager, project leader, project coordinator, etc. Very high

Role: Project ManagerObjectives Representing the interests of the project Realizing the project objectives Directing the project team and the project contributors Representing the project to relevant project environments Preparing and adapting of the project management documentation Organizational position Reporting to the project owner team Member of the project team Tasks Tasks in the project start process Know-how transfer from the pre-project phase into the project, together with project team members and the project owner team ..54

Role Characteristics: Project Owner TeamNames Importance for the project success Objectives Representing the interests of the company in a project, assigning the project to the project team; directing the project manager, supporting the project team Number of persons Non-objectives Competences Recruitment 1 for small projects, 2 to 4 for projects; of the same or of different hierarchy levels Performing project management functions, setteling conflicts of the project team Project management, strategical orientation, social and decisionmaking competences Executives from the project-performing organizations, who are interested in the project results55

Project owner, project steering committee, project supervisory board, project sponsor, etc. Very high; often not performed accordingly

Role: Project Owner TeamObjectives Representing the interests of the company in a project Assigning the project to the project team Directing the project manager Supporting the project team Organizational position Member of the project organisation Project manager reports the project owner team Tasks Tasks in the project start process Selecting the project manager and project team members Agreeing on the project objectives with the project team Contributing to the construction of the project context56

Relational Description of Project RolesApplication of standardized structures Structure: Objectives, organizational position, tasks, relations to environments, formal authorities Relating the tasks to the project management sub-processes Consideration of relations between different roles

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Objects of Consideration and Project Team RolesObjects of consideration SW SW HW HW Organisation Organisation Objectives -Completed SW solution -Implemented SW and HW solution -Developed concept for organisation Project Projekt ProjektPlanning Planung Planung Realisierung Realisation Realisierung Test Test Commissioning IBN IBN

Scope

SW Planung Planung plannin SW SW g HW Planung Planung HW planning HW Project team

. . . .

Projekt PM manager

SW SW

Org Organisation HW58

GW: Project RolesObjectives Developing an understanding about the relationships between the project roles Contents Analysis of project roles (project manager, project owner, project team member, etc.) Analysis of the relationship between the roles Own perception of these roles Working Form Group work: 15` Documentation: Notes Discussion of the results in the plenary

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Perception of the Project ManagerProject managers are managers, not administrators. Drivers, achievers, team players, service providers, leaders, Project managers are not the best technical experts. Project management professionals, generalists, business-oriented, marketing-oriented, Project managers require social competences. Moderating, presenting, solving conflicts, leading teams, communicating with relevant environments, reflecting, Project managers come in different forms. Part time or full time, project manager only or in combination with a contents-related role, for different project types, Project managers are part of a project management community. Project management exchange, of experience groups, peers in the company, project management associations, 60

Project Responsibility Chart, Project Communication Structures, Project Rules

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Project Responsibility ChartMethod to plan the fulfilment of work packages For selected work packages An integrative project management method, integrates .. WBS, role definitions, project environment analysis Consideration of individual roles and of team roles Definition of functions for the performance of each work package Use of different functions; e.g. : performance (P), contribution (C), coordination (C1), information (I), decision (D)

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I

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Project Communication StructuresCommunication Form Project Owner Meeting Objectives Participants Frequency Once a month (and when required)

Project status Project Owner, Project Manager, reporting, strategic decisions, Guests feedback

Project Team Meeting

Information, project controlling, project decisions Solutions of contents-related problems

Project Team Members, Guests

Once a month (and when required) As required

Sub-Team Meeting

Sub-Team Members

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Project Team MeetingsDetailed problems regarding the project contents are not subject of project team meetings. The Big Project Picture is to be constructed. Dates for team meetings and project owner meetings have to be fixed in the start process. Representatives of relevant project environments may participate in team meetings.

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Project RulesMeeting rules Being on time IT application rules MS Office version Filing on server Corporate design rules Usage of project logo only in combination with company logo

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Project Role Assignments

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Combination of Project Roles Project Owner and Project Manager Project Owner and Project Team Member Project Owner and Project Contributor Project Manager and Project Team Member Project Manager and Project Contributor NO NO YES YES, but ... YES

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Inter-Role Conflicts and PotentialsMr. MillerPr oje nt ct me rt (P Team a ro ep je c M fD t B em o be ) ad r

He

Project Manager (Project A)

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GW: Role Conflicts and PotentialsObjectives Reflecting inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials Tasks Defining individual roles one is playing Analysing individual inter and intra-role conflicts and potentials Exchange of the results of the analysis with another student, challenge statements regarding conflicts and potentials Form Individual analysis: 5` Exchange of the analysis results`: 10` Brief discussion in the plenary

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GW: Organizational Design of a ProjectObjectives Application of methods for the organizational design of projects for a private project Tasks Selection of a private project Definition of project roles Design of a project organization chart Form Small groups, 20` Brief presentations and discussions

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Project Leadership

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Management and LeadershipTraditional management functions Plan, organize, lead, control Systemic leadership functions Construction of a common realities Building-up and reducing complexity Managing dynamics Providing sense Leadership Part of the management functions Interventions versus individuals and teams Intervention: A goal-determined communication

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Leadership in ProjectsProviding (context) information Providing conditions to motivate the members of the project organisation Agreeing on objectives Controlling progress and giving feedback Making decisions Solving conflicts Reflecting to promote learning of individuals and teams

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Leadership Roles in ProjectsProject owner Project manager Project team

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Event-oriented LeadershipApproval by the user

Energy

Project start workshop

Project presentation

Project close-down workshop

Project controlling meeting

Project controlling meeting

t

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Teams in Projects

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Project Organization ChartProject Project contributor contributor

Sub team

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Project Project contributor contributor Project Project contributor contributor

Project TeamProject team Project team member member Project team Project team member member Project Project manager manager

Project Project contributor contributor

Subteam 1

Project Project contributor contributor

Project OrganisationProject Project owner team owner team78

Unreal team-work

Real team-work

Individual work

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Team-PerformancePerformance

(Katzenbach)

Team Potential Team Pseudo Team

Working Group

Integration80

Group versus TeamTeam "We are a Team" Individual objectives less important than team objectives Common responsibilty for the results High coherence; trust and team spirit Strong, relying on each other Group "I am in a Group" Individual objectives dominate Individual responsibility for individual results Little coherence Weak

Task orientation Responsibility Coherence Interdependencies

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Team Development

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Team Development ProcessTraditional Model Forming Performing Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Adapted Model Forming and Norming Performing Reflecting Renorming Performing Adjourning

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Forming: ObjectivesAssuring the required qualifications, capitals Establishing a coherent team by Informing each other about private secrets Performing common social activities Developing a common project view Defining common project rules, norms Ensuring the identification of the team members with the project

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Capitals Required in Teams

Know-how Capital

Relational Capital

Decision Capital

Project Success = Quality x Acceptance85

Reflection and Feedback in ProjectsReflection: Objectives Reflection by a social system (e.g. the project team) Basis for learning, for further development Reflection: Working forms Flash light, smilies, associative methods Feedback: Objectives Feedback is directed versus someone, something Informal or formal feedback Basis for learning, for further development Feedback: Working forms Questionnaire, meeting86

Reflection: Status per Results

Process87

Johari-WindowA Area of Free Action B The Blind SpotKnown by others

C Hidden Area

D The UnconsciousNot known by others

Known by oneself

Not known by oneself

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A B

C

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Feedback RulesRules to give feedback Be concrete, clear and on time Be constructive, positive and possibly negative statements Consider the situation, the timing Be aware of the consequences of your feedback Rules to take feedback Ask, to clarify the feedback Don`t argue Accept the feedback as a subjective statement Be grateful for the feedback

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GW: FeedbackObjectives Experience a formal feedback situation: Giving and taking Tasks Find a student to give feedback about your observations of him/her in class Prepare for the feedback situation Give feedback to each other student by applying the feedback rules (3`) Criteria for feedback: Contribution to the discussion, making presentations, giving feedback to other students, socialize with other students, ? Form Groups of two, not friends! Duration: 10` Plenary: Experiences gained91

Project Culture

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Elements of the Project CultureProject name, project logo, project colour Project values, project mission statement Project language, project slogans, project anecdotes Project artefacts (project management documentation, project folder, etc) Project room Social project events

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Project Culture: ObjectivesCreation of a competitive advantage by establishing clear project boundaries to allow the recognition of the project promoting the identification of the members of the project organization with the project Development of a team spirit, providing orientation to the members of the project team Promotion of a relative project autonomy Creation of the basis for project marketing

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Project NameClear, short, allowing associations with the project objectives Identifying the project type; e.g Conception Product XY NO-NOs unclear abbreviations, numbers (4711) only the customer name wrong associations (Route 66)

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Project logo and project colour

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Project Values/Mission StatementResult-related values and process-related values Questions to ask: What is specific about the project? What is important for the project team? What is not important? What differences are there between this project and others? ... Possibility, to document the values in a project mission statement Practical relevance still low

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Project SlogansProject specific or project phase specific Used in project meetings, in brochures, folders To give orientation to the members of the project organization representatives of the relevant environments

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Project Culture DevelopmentThe project culture is developed initially in the project start process. The project culture is further developed by meta-communication in the project controlling process. Usually, no major changes in the project culture are desired. To resolve a project discontinuity also the project culture requires major changes.

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Responsibilities

Members of the project team

Project manager

Project owner

Project coach

Project team

ActivitiesPlanning the project start Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of forms of communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of methods and form of documentation of PM to be used Agreement with the project owner Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of starting communications I, II, ... Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts of plans, organization, culture and marketing of the project Developing of information material for starting communications

C

R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C

1)

Preparing the project start

2)

3)

Documents

Externals

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IPMA`90: Management by Projects10th World Congress of the IPMAInternational Project Management Association June, 1990

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IPMA`90: Context, SituationPeriodic world congress of the IPMA PMA was established in 1986 at the WU Wien, congress as a marketing chance The preceding congress in Glasgow 1988 was a flop Demand for a clear profile of the product and intensive marketing

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IPMA`90: Project NameIPMA`90: Management by Projects Repetitive event: Organiser: IPMA-International Project Management Association Year: 1990 Contents Management by Projects

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IPMA90: Mission StatementScience and practice Traditional and innovative Viennese and international Mind and body Individual and co-operative, a learning chance Product and process related statements!

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Date 12/88 10/89

IPMA`90 Slogans Total Marketing! No more creativity! Love for the details and for a high quality in the production! Have fun, everything is decided! IPMA90 - A High Touch Project

5/90 6/90

Project phases related slogans!

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GW: Project CultureObjectives Project culture development Contents Developing a project name, a project slogan, project specific values for a specific project Working Form Group work: 20; notes Report in the plenary

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Project Start Process

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Project assigned

Project starting Project coordinating

Project controlling

Project discontinuity resolving

Project closing-down

Project approved

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Project Start: SituationTime pressure, high demand for project work Social uncertainty, people do not know each other (in their new roles) Need for orientation Different levels of information of participants

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Project Start: ResultsAppropriate project plans and appropriate project organization established Common big project picture, project team spirit developed Project culture developed, social system established Project is known to relevant environment, initial project marketing performed Project management documentation project start completed Agreements upon project controlling and project-close down

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Project Start: MethodsApplication of methods in the project start process Planning Methods Project objectives plan Objects of consideration plan Project work breakdown structure Project work package specification Project bar chart Project finance plan Project cost plan Business case analysis must can must can must can must can must must must must must can must must Small Project Project

112 ROLAND GAREIS Project and Programme Management

Project Communication FormsQuality of PM Project Workshop Kick-off/ Close-down Meeting Individual Meetings low low middle113

high

middle

high

Need for Resources

Project Start WS: OrganizationVenue: Outside of the company, seminar hotel Duration: 1-3 days Sequential workshops: e.g. 1 plus 1 day, 3 days in between for documentation work Several workshops with different target groups at different locations project team, customer representatives, contractor Professional moderation of the WS Visualization, afterwards electronic documentation Invitation of the project owner at the end of the WS

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Project Start: InfrastructureProject office, offices for (distributed) project team members PM software, office software Intranet and Internet (project portal, homepage, e-mail,...) Telecom: Telephone- and video conferencing Visualization and moderation tools

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Project Start: Assurance of Management QualityProject consulting supporting the project in the start process to build up project management competence Coaching of the project owner, project manager, project team by external or internal consultants

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ResponsibilitiesMembers of the project team

Project manager

Project owner

Project coach

Project team

ActivitiesPlanning the project start Check: Internal project assignment and results of the pre-pj phase Selection of form of start communication Selection of project team members (and of a project coach) Selection of PM methods and form of documentation Agreement with the project owner about start process Hiring of a project coach (option) Preparation of forms of start communications I, II, ... Invitation of participants Documentation of the results of the pre-project phase Drafts for planning, organizing and marketing of the project Developing of information material for start communications

R R R R R (C) (C) R C C C (C) (C) (C) C C C 2)

C

1)

Preparing the project start

3)

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Documents

Externals

Case Study: Start of Project Feature DevelopmentProject information Based on the results of a conception project the Project Portfolio Group of an Austrian telecommunication company decides to further develop an existing product by adding a new feature to it (e.g. providing information about the daily telefon costs) Project duration: 2-3 months Project costs: 120.000, Partner: SW developer, advertising agency,... Working form Small groups, 10`-15`; documentation

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Case Study: AssignmentAnalysis of the strategic importance and the social complexity of the project Planning the knowledge transfer from the conception project into the project Feature Development project management methods to be applied in the start process communication structures for the start process required infrastructure for the start process involvement of a project management consultant and/or coach in the start process initial project marketing

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Happy Projects!Roland Gareis

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