Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)

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  • 1.Nada Dabbagh & Anastasia Kitsantas George Mason University Fairfax, VA2013 Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy Virginia Tech, VA

2. Personal Learning Environments SocialMediaSelf-RegulatedLearningStrategic Integration of Formaland Informal Learning 3. EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) (2009) seventhings you should know about series defines PLEsas the tools, communities, and services that constitute theindividual educational platforms learners use to directtheir own learning and pursue educational goals PLEs can be perceived as both a technology and apedagogical approach that is student-designedaround each students goals or a learningapproach 4. Self-regulation refers to the degree to which students areable to become metacognitively, motivationally, andbehaviorally active participants of their own learningprocess (Zimmerman, 1989, 2000) SRL processes or strategies: Goal setting Self-monitoring Self-evaluating Use of task strategies (e.g. rehearsing, organizing and transforming) Help seeking Time planning and management Intrinsic interest 5. Learning TechnologiesPedagogical Ecology of Learning EnvironmentsLearning TheoriesLearning InteractionsPedagogical Models Social Practices 6. MobileTechnologies Social Media Technologies Web 1.0 ICT/IBTBroadcastTechnologies 7. Broadcast TechnologiesPedagogical Ecology of Traditional DEBehaviorist Pedagogical Direct InstructionModels and Theories:Isolated Curricular UnitsSRR, PI, InformationDrill & Practice, TestsProcessing Theory, CAI 8. Internet Based Technologies Digital Technologies ICT (Web 1.0) PedagogicalEcology ofDistributed LearningConstructivism, DistributedCollaboration, Reflection,Cognition, CoP, Open/FlexibleArticulation, ExplorationLearning, Knowledge Networks,Social NegotiationALN 9. How can learning technologies be used to support and promote specific processes of student self-regulated learning such as goal setting, help seeking, and self- monitoring, in online and distributed learning contexts? 10. Collaborative and CommunicationTools Content AssessmentCreation andToolsDeliveryToolsLearning ManagementSystemsLearningAdministrativeToolsToolsWeb-Based Pedagogical Tools (WBPT) 11. Do different categories of WBPT support differentprocesses of self-regulation? Do students means on the self-regulatory processes ratings (e.g., goal setting and self-monitoring) vary significantly with their use of the different WBPT? Did students perceive WBPT useful in scaffolding strategic learning while completing course assignments?Kitsantas, A., & Dabbagh, N. (2004). Promoting self-regulation in distributed learningenvironments with web-based pedagogical tools: An exploratory study. Journal onExcellence in College Teaching, 15(1-2), 119-142.Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Using web-based pedagogical tools as scaffolds forself-regulated learning. Instructional Science, 33(5-6), 513-540. 12. WBPT Category Self-Regulatory ProcessAdministrative ToolsSelf-monitoring, help seekingCollaborative & Communication Goal setting, help seeking, timeTools managementContent Creation & Delivery Tools Self-evaluation, task strategies, goalsettingLearning ToolsTask strategiesAssessment ToolsTask strategies, self-monitoring, self-evaluation 13. How experienced online instructors used WBPT to support student self-regulation in distributed and online courses and whether these instructors deliberately used WBPT to facilitate student self-regulation. Overall college instructors reported using specific WBPT to support specific processes of self-regulation, however, instructors did not report deliberately using WBPT to support student self-regulation.Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2009). Exploring how experienced online instructors reportusing integrative learning technologies to support self-regulated learning. InternationalJournal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5(2), 154-168. 14. Web 2.0 and Social MediaTechnologiesPedagogical Ecology ofSocial NetworksInformal Learning, Mobile Blogging, Microblogging,Learning, Personal Learning Podcasting, Vodcasting,Environments (PLE), SocialSocial Bookmarking,Learning Environments (SLE) Social Tagging 15. Communication tools (e.g., web 2.0 enabled email applications such asGmail and Google Wave; web conferencing tools such as Adobe Connect;and VOIP applications such as Skype) Experience and resource sharing tools (e.g., blogs, microblogs, & wikissuch as WordPress, Twitter, and PBwiki; media sharing tools such asFlickr, YouTube, Pinterest; social bookmarking tools such as delicious) Social networking sites (e.g., LinkedIn, FaceBook, Plaxo, Ning) Immersive virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life, MMORPG, ARG) Cloud Technologies/Web or online office tools (e.g., Googleapps,Microsoft Office Live) Mobile technologies (e.g., iPods, iPads, smart phones, e-readers) 16. ILT Communication ToolsExperience &SocialResourceNetworkingSharing Tools Tools Social MediaLearning ManagementSystems (LMS) Social Media MobileCloud Based TechnologiesTechnologies Immersive Virtual Worlds 17. Kitsantas, A., & Dabbagh, N. (2010). Learning to learn with IntegrativeLearning Technologies (ILT): A practical guide for academic success.Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Integrative Learning Technologies (ILT) A dynamic collection or aggregation of Web tools,software applications, and mobile technologies thatintegrate technological and pedagogical featuresand affordances of the Internet and the Web to facilitatethe design, development, delivery, and managementof online and distributed learning Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (in press) The Role of Social Media in Self-Regulation. International Journal of Web Based Communities (IJWBC), Special Issue, Social Networking and Education as a Catalyst Social Change. 18. Social media can facilitate the creation of PLEs that help learners aggregate andshare the results of learning achievements, participate in collective knowledgegeneration, and manage their own meaning making PLEs can serve as platforms for both integrating formal and informal learningand fostering self-regulated learning in higher education contexts PLEs empower students to take charge of their own learning prompting them toselect tools and resources to create, organize and package learning content tolearn effectively and efficiently PLEs are inherently self-directed placing the responsibility for organizing learningon the individual. PLEs listed in the 2011 Horizon Report as an emerging technology that is likelyto have a large impact on teaching and learning within education around theglobe and a time-to-adoption of four to five years 19. Valjataga et al. (2011) examined college students perceptions of the pedagogical affordances of social media in supporting the development of PLEs Students were given the freedom to select social media tools to create personal and distributed learning spaces (PLEs and DLEs) to facilitate individual and collaborative learning tasks in an educational technology course The results revealed that students perceptions of the affordances of PLEs and DLEs dynamically changed as they navigated the course landscape of social media tools Students should be encouraged to develop skills and confidence in the selection, application, and use of social media tools for personalized learning New pedagogical models and approaches are needed to enhance students abilities to organize and customize their own learning environments and advance their self-direction and self-awareness in a PLE.Valjataga, T., Pata, K., & Tammets, K. (2011). Considering students perspective on personal anddistributed learning environments. In M.J.W. Lee and C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-based e-Learning: Applying social informatics for tertiary teaching (pp. 85-107). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. 20. Students need support, guidance, and pedagogicalinterventions to make the best possible use of social media tosupport their learning goals Students must acquire and apply a set of personal knowledgemanagement (PKM) skills, defined as the act of managingones personal knowledge through technologies PLEs require the development and application of self-regulated learning skills because PLEs are built bottom-upstarting with personal goals, information management, andindividual knowledge construction, and progressing to sociallymediated knowledge and networked learning (Dabbagh &Reo, 2011a; Turker & Zingel, 2008) 21. Personal Learning Environments SocialMediaSelf-RegulatedLearningStrategic Integration of Formaland Informal Learning 22. Levels of Use (Level 1) (Level 2) (Level 3) Private Information Basic Interaction orSocial NetworkingToolsManagement Sharing Weblog Use as private online Enable comments, Dynamic access to related/ recommendedjournal Trackback, RSS contentfeeds Add blog to RSS aggregation services e.g., TechnoratiWiki Use as private content Password protected Public collaborative editing & commentingmanagement space collaborative editing Enable users view history/recent changes & commentingRSS Reader Private news/ media Enable personal Access social filtering features to network(Bloglines) feed archive archive sharing with like-minded tool members or discover content via recommendationsSocial Bookmarking Private bookmark Personal and Create/join user networks to access other( archivecollective taggingpeoples links Use group tags; subscribe to tagsSocial Media Set-up private media Create/add media Create/join public user groups or(Flickr, YouTube) archive or channel content and apply channels(consume only) Creative Commons licensesSocial Networking Privacy controls Add contacts, Enable a range of conversation/ chat,sites (Facebook)available but public friends, etc. comment, discussion managementaccess the default services (e.g., wall graffiti) 23. Zimmermans (2000, 2008) Three-Phase Model of Self-Regulated Learning 24. Lowest level of social interactivity The focus is on managing private information for personal productivity or e-learning taskssuch as online bookmarks, multimedia archives, and personal journals and writing Students do not activate any of the social sharing or networking features the tools provide Students do not have an observable presence on the grid Students may pull in other peoples content but the goal or purpose is not to share self-generated content with others Usage at this level involves a passive or personal use of systems preferences and features Instructors should encourage students to use social media such as blogs and wikis tocreate a PLE that enables them to engage in self-regulated learning processes ofZimmermans forethought phase such as goal setting and planning The goal at this level is to guide students to create a personal or private learning space byself-generating content and managing this content for personal productivity ororganizational e-learning tasks such as creating online bookmarks, media resources, andpersonal journals and calendars 25. The focus is on communication, social interaction, and collaboration Students activate the social sharing and networking features of the tool Students are using social media to foster informal learning communitiessurrounding the course topics thereby extending the PLE from a personallearning space to a social learning space Social and collaborative activities engage students in the self-regulationprocesses of self-monitoring and help seeking prompting students to identifystrategies needed to perform more formal learning tasks This level of social media use in a PLE aligns with the performance phase ofZimmermans model 26. Students use social media to synthesize andaggregate information from level 1 and level 2 in orderto reflect on their overall learning experience Social media activities allow students to take greatercontrol of their PLE, customizing it and personalizing itaround their learning goals This level of social media use in a PLE aligns with thefinal phase of Zimmermans model, self-reflection Evaluation or self-reflection is then used by the studentto influence the forethought phase of subsequentefforts 27. (Level 1)(Level 2) (Level 3)Personal information management Social interaction and collaboration Information aggregation and management Blogs Instructor encourages students to useInstructor encourages students to enableInstructor demonstrates how to configurea blog as a private journal to set the blog comment feature to allow for a blog to pull in additional content andlearning goals and plan for course instructor and peer feedback enabling how to add the blog to RSS aggregationassignments and tasksbasic interaction and sharing servicesWikis Instructor encourages students to useInstructor encourages students to enableInstructor demonstrates how to view aa wiki as a personal space for content the wikis collaborative editing andwikis history to promote student self-organization and managementcommenting features for feedbackevaluation of their learning across timeGoogleInstructor encourages students to useInstructor encourages students to enableInstructor demonstrates how to archiveCalendarGoogle Calendar for personal the calendar sharing features to allowpersonal and group calendars to promoteplanning feedback and collaboration to completestudent self-evaluation regarding time course tasksplanning and managementYouTube orInstructor encourages students to useInstructor encourages students to enableInstructor demonstrates how to aggregateFlickrFlickr or YouTube to set up athe sharing feature of the media archivemedia from several media archives topersonal media archive related toand join similar media archives created byrefine their personal archivecourse content peersSocialInstructor encourages students toInstructor encourages students to connect Instructor asks students to engage in self-Networkingcreate an academic and career profileto online communities related to theirreflection with the goal to restructure theirSites on LinkedInprofessional goalsprofile and social presenceSocialInstructor encourages students to useInstructor encourages students toInstructor asks students to self-reflect onBookmarking a social bookmarking tool (e.g., collaborate with other classmates andtheir personal and group bookmarks toDelicious) to organize course contentcreate a shared list of bookmarks related to enhance the desired learning outcome a specific learning topic or project 28. 29.