Group a Cognitivism

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  • 7/31/2019 Group a Cognitivism


    By : Shazana










  • 7/31/2019 Group a Cognitivism


    Cognitivism is the theory that

    describes how information is

    processed to produce learning. It

    is the change in a learners

    mental behaviour.

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    Cognitivism is a learning throughconscious and reasoned thinking process.

    It processes the information andexperiences that we gain mentally, and

    cannot be measured by behaviour


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    For example :

    A child saw a chicken has two legs. When he

    saw a duck, he thought that it is also a

    chicken. It shows that the child has

    produced a schema that every two legged

    animal is a chicken. Thus, when the teachershows the picture of duck, they learn that

    not all two legged animal is a chicken. They

    assimilate the new information with whatthey have learnt.

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    Cannot directly measured by behaviour

    A naughty boy doesnt mean that he is

    stupid or not a good learner.

    Focus attention and stimulate curiosity

    and interest.

    Learners need to recognise or perceive theinformation before they can process it.

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    Organise the new information into logical


    Learners categorise information so they can

    discern the difference between critical and

    non-critical information.

    Elaborate the new information by adding

    to it with examples.

    Helps learners to make comparisonsbetween the known and unknown.

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    Give learners time to

    develop metacognitive skills. Learners can reflect on and understand

    their own learning process, so they can

    monitor their progress and makemodifications accordingly.

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    Examples in classroom

    Making graphic organizer

    Refer back to what we learn by conclude it

    in a mind map or graphic organizer. It canhelps them to memorize the content in a

    long time.

    Underlining key words The key words helps child to understand the

    content and remember it.

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    Learn new words and adapt to their cognitive



    Finding a solution to a puzzle develops a

    child's problem solving ability. Puzzles requirea child to consider patterns, orders, andassociations. Children who actively solve

    puzzles that they are able to touch and piece

    together are more likely to understand certainconcepts and develop their own theoriesabout those concepts.

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    Explanations are based at a functional and

    psychological level compared to the

    physiological approach.

    Evaluate the students based on their

    performance not their appearance.

    Very effective to evaluate the students

    performance very well.

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    The teachers must be very precise regarding

    their students ability.

    need to know how to handle the students

    according to their cognitive level.

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    Implications in classroom

    Teachers need to be aware that all

    students are trying to learn.

    Learning difficulties often indicateineffective or inappropriate cognitive

    processes, especially for children with learning

    disabilities, who tend to process information

    less effectively.

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    Teachers should show how new ideasrelate to previous learning.

    New information is most easily acquiredwhen people can associate it with things they

    have already learned.

    Teachers can facilitate students' learningby presenting information in an

    organized manner.

    This organization should reflect students'previous knowledge and show how one thingrelates to the other.

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    Four stages of cognitive development.

    Sensorimotor stage.

    This stage typically lasts until a child is

    about two years old.

    A child explores the world through his senses:

    taste, touch, sight, sound, and smell.

    A child will also develop some motor skillsduring this time. However, children typically have

    no understanding of symbolic representation.

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    Preoperational stage.

    Occurs when a child begins and continues to

    develop language and thinking skills, and typicallylasts from age two until age seven.

    The child also becomes focused on himself andhow the world relates to him.

    Concrete operational stage. Usually occurs between the ages of seven andtwelve.

    Children also begin to develop logical thinking;they begin to understand that the way objects areset up has nothing to do with the amount of anobject.

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    Formal operational stage.

    Begins around age twelve and laststhroughout our adult lives.

    During this stage we develop both logical

    and abstract thinking. Our thought process isever changing.

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    Piaget also believed that a child who hadn't

    completed certain developmental stages could

    not learn things from higher developmentalstages. For example, a child who has not

    learned language could not think logically.

    He believed that the human mind isembedded with specific ways of doing things.

    For example, a baby knows how to suck

    his thumb without being taught, webreathe unconsciously, and our hearts beat

    without being ordered to.

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    There are three major concepts when dealing

    with changing ingrained schemes.

    Assimilation occurs when a person perceives

    a new object in terms of existing knowledge.

    Accommodation occurs when you modify

    existing cognitive structures based on new


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    Equilibration includes both assimilation and

    accommodation and is considered the masterdevelopmental process.

    For example, a child who has only been

    around sports cars will believe that a car issmall, has two doors, and is fast. When he

    sees a minivan, he must change his belief

    about what a car is. Once he accepts that a

    minivan is a type of car and a sports car is

    another type of car, equilibration is achieved.

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    Comparison between Social

    Constructivism and Cognitivism

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