How Students Learn. Learning Theories Behaviorism Behaviorism Cognitivism Cognitivism Constructivism Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Multiple Intelligences.

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<ul><li><p>How Students Learn</p></li><li><p>Learning Theories Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Multiple Intelligences</p></li><li><p>Behaviorism(Thorndike, Pavlov, Skinner) early-mid 20th CenturyParticularly interested in measurable changes in behaviorBehavior change indicates learningStimulus &amp; Response</p><p>Critics claim behaviorists regard learners as empty vessels needed to be filled stresses teacher-centered approaches</p></li><li><p>Cognitivism(Gagne, (1950s to late 20th Century)To complement behaviorismNon observable mental constructs are also importantNon observable are hard to measure &amp; analyzable stresses the mind: thinking, reflection, motivation, memory, student control, metacognition, etc. </p></li><li><p> Constructivism(late 20th Century till now)Knowledge is actively constructed by learnerNew knowledge is possible through reflection upon existing knowledge Learning is a social processstresses student-centered approaches, learning rather than teaching, contextual, cooperative, etc.</p></li><li><p> Multiple Intelligences1 Linguistic 2 Logical-mathematical 3 Spatial 4 Bodily-kinesthetic 5 Musical 6 Naturalistic 7 Interpersonal 8 Intrapersonal stresses individual-centered approaches</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics</p><p> Generalization Discovery Investigation Authentic Motivation Recognizing Patterns Drill &amp; Practice Reflection Mnemonics Visualization Connections Competition Social Interaction In Isolation Fun Learn what they like !</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics- Pythagoras TheoremInvestigation &amp; Discovery</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics- Distances &amp; ScalesThrough Authentic Activities</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics- Basic Operations &amp; BeyondThrough Competition &amp; Fun</p></li><li><p>Numbers - DivisionIf David Beckham gets $250 million in 5 years, what is his salary? Wage?In a day? An hour? A second?in Rupiah !!!!!!!! Through Interests &amp; Curiosity</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics- GraphsMultiple Intelligences: Through Visualizations</p></li><li><p>How Students LearnMathematics- FormulasThrough Mnemonics</p></li><li><p>Through Mnemonicssin x = </p><p>kos x = </p><p>tan x = </p></li><li><p>How Some Geniuses LearnMathematics</p></li><li><p>by Following InstructionsFound it</p></li><li><p>by Following InstructionsFound it</p></li><li><p>by Following the Rules</p></li><li><p>by Following the Rules</p></li><li><p>by Following the Rules</p></li><li><p>by Following More Rules</p></li><li><p>by Following More Rules</p></li><li><p>by Following More Rules</p></li><li><p>by Recognizing Patterns </p></li><li><p>by Recognizing Patterns </p></li><li><p>by Peter the Great</p></li></ul>


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