GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam Questions and ... ... GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam

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  • Challenges of an

    urbanising world

    GCSE Geography

    Edexcel B Practice Exam

    Questions and Answers

  • Challenges of an Urbanising World 1. Describe the distribution of the largest megacities in

    2100 shown in figure. 1 (2)

    Megacities shown are mostly on the Coast of Africa such

    as Lagos in Nigeria and Asia, areas that are currently

    developing countries.

    2. Describe how the percentage of people working in the

    informal sector changes as a country develops. (2)

    The Informal economy refers to jobs which are unregulated and don’t pay tax. As a country developed, better controls and laws come in meaning the amount of people employed in this sector decreases.

    3. Compare the Urban and Rural change shown in figure. 2 (3)

    The graph shows that both rural and urban areas were increasing up until 2000 and rural areas had the

    majority of the population up 2005. After this point Urban population was greater than rural and continued

    to grow whilst rural population stabilized and slightly decreased.

    4. Which of the following is not likely to be a challenges faced by a worker in the informal sector? (1)

    A. Working in dangerous conditions. B. Working long hours C. Earning very little. D. Having to pay high taxes.

    People in the informal sector DO NOT have to pay high tax (D)

    5. Explain why the population is growing rapidly in a megacity in an emerging or developing country you have studied. (4)

    Natural increase as better healthcare standards and accessibility lowers the death rate but the birthrate

    remains high due to culture. Urban pull and rural push factors such as job opportunities cause economically

    active migrants to move to the city.

    6. Suggest why there are big differences in quality of life within megacities in emerging countries. (4)

    Mumbai is a megacity in the emerging world. Within Mumbai vast inequality exists. This is because some

    entrepreneurs and landowners have been able to benefit from the inward investment in business and from

    the low wages paid to most workers that has made them large profits. However others, such as those that

    have recently migrated from the countryside, are very poor living on less that $1 a day due to lack of formal,

    secure jobs and their workers’ rights. In addition, the tax system is set up to benefit the wealth.

    Figure 1. Megacities in 2100

    Figure 2. Rural, Urban Change

  • 7. Explain two challenges for people living in informal settlements. (4)

    High risk of disease due to the lack of sanitation (toilets) which mean drinking water is easily and often polluted. The lack of formal electricity supply means people either steel electricity that is dangerous or a fire risk or use candles and lamps, which increase the air pollution.

    8. State two ways that urban areas are affected by de-industrialisation. (2)

    One negative impact of deindustrialization is a loss of jobs and the factories move away from the cities

    however a positive is the pollution levels in the city often reduce.

    9. For a named megacity in an emerging or developing country, assess the effectiveness of top-down and bottom up strategies that have been used to improve the quality of life. (8 +4 SPaG)

    Top down development – Vision Mumbai

    1. Government funded, high cost scheme to rehouse slum dwellers in flats 2. Many feel $2bn could be better spent on providing education or healthcare 3. 50,000 flats will be created but 200,000 homes destroyed in Dhavari 4. Better flats will improve a wide range of factors (safety, sanitation, electricity, pollution) 5. Flats will only be for those that can prove they have lived there since 1995 6. Destroy community spirit and local businesses that provide vital recycling and jobs within Mumbai

    Bottom Up- Slumaid.ord – Charity Schooling

    1. UK charity funded project so reliant on donations and aid which is not fixed funded. 2. Schooling is reliant on volunteer teachers so standards can vary. 3. Helps the poorest in the community which otherwise wouldn’t benefit from schemes 4. Can only help a tiny fraction of those in need 5. Provides a sustainable future by educating people to help themselves. 6. Will only tackle one issue and doesn’t improve healthcare, jobs or living conditions so many argue is a

    waste of time.

    Explain two reasons why the world is increasingly urbanized. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two reasons for the increasing urbanisation, with 2

    marks available for the reasons and 2 additional marks for their development. Correct points which could be

    developed include:

    • The world is becoming increasingly urbanised because more people are moving from rural villages to big

    cities (1), especially in developing countries where they want to find a job and have a better quality of life

    (1).

    • Factories locate in urban areas because they need large workforce (1) and the availability of their jobs

    attracts more people to the city (1).

    • People moving to cities get married and start families (1), raising the urban population through natural

    increase (1).

    Do not credit more than two reasons. If only one reason is given, a maximum of 2 marks should be awarded.

  • Explain two ways in which world cities influence decision-making. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two ways world cities influence decision-making, with 2

    marks available for the examples and 2 additional marks for their development. Correct points which could

    be developed include:

    • Many TNC headquarters are based in world cities (1), which has influence because decisions are made here

    about what is made/sold, and where economic activity takes place (1).

    • Governments in world cities often have control of powerful military resources (1), which can be used to

    resolve conflicts (1).

    • World cities are major financial centres (1) with trillions of US dollars passing through every year and

    attracting investment from major companies (1).

    Do not credit more than two reasons. If only one reason is given, a maximum of 2 marks should be awarded.

    Suggest one reason for the population change shown in Figure 3. [2 marks]

    This question is point marked. Award 1 mark for the reason population has declined, with an additional mark

    available for development. Correct points that could be developed include:

    • General Motors, a major employer in Detroit, needed fewer workers because it began using robots to

    make cars (1), increasing unemployment and causing people to move away to look for work (1).

    • More car parts are imported by General Motors, putting local companies out of work (1) and causing

    people to leave Detroit to find jobs (1).

    Do not credit more than one reason.

  • Explain two reasons why the economies of developed and developing world cities differ. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two reasons why the economies of developed and

    developing world cities vary, with additional marks available for the development of these points. Correct

    points that could be developed include:

    • In developing countries, a far higher percentage of people work in the informal economy (1) as

    opportunities in the formal economy are limited (1).

    • Cities in developed countries will gather more money in taxes (1) because most workers are in the formal

    economy and automatically pay tax, whereas as many as 80% of workers in developing countries are in the

    informal economy so may not pay tax (1).

    • Manufacturing in developed countries is often a smaller industry than in developing countries (1) because

    developed countries have more of a focus on services and financial industries, based on the “knowledge

    economy.”

    Using examples, assess the effects of suburbanisation upon cities. [8 marks]

    This question is marked using levels. The key to this question is the command word ‘assess’. It asks for the

    impacts of suburbanisation to be assessed, so Level 3 should only be awarded when a number of well-

    developed points are made. Look for developed points and well-developed points, rather than just long lists.

    The question also asks for named examples to be given and this is essential for Level 3, along with good

    location knowledge and understanding of the case study. The city of New York on pages 92–93 of the

    student book provides a good case study to use. Only credit assessment of suburbanisation rather than any

    other urban process. For AO2 (Understanding), a maximum of 4 marks can be awarded for correct

    explanations. Positive effects of suburbanisation include:

    • There is more space on the edge of the city (developed by explanation, e.g. people can live in bigger

    houses with bigger gardens, well-developed by saying this would include the quality of life).

    • The transport network develops to serve the suburbs (developed by example, e.g. road bridges built across

    the Hudson and East rivers allow commuters fast access to New York). • There tends to be less crime in

    suburban areas (developed by expanding, e.g. this