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Challenges of an urbanising world GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam Questions and Answers

GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam Questions and ......GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam Questions and Answers Challenges of an Urbanising World 1. Describe the distribution

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Text of GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam Questions and ......GCSE Geography Edexcel B Practice Exam...

  • Challenges of an

    urbanising world

    GCSE Geography

    Edexcel B Practice Exam

    Questions and Answers

  • Challenges of an Urbanising World 1. Describe the distribution of the largest megacities in

    2100 shown in figure. 1 (2)

    Megacities shown are mostly on the Coast of Africa such

    as Lagos in Nigeria and Asia, areas that are currently

    developing countries.

    2. Describe how the percentage of people working in the

    informal sector changes as a country develops. (2)

    The Informal economy refers to jobs which are unregulated and don’t pay tax. As a country developed, better controls and laws come in meaning the amount of people employed in this sector decreases.

    3. Compare the Urban and Rural change shown in figure. 2 (3)

    The graph shows that both rural and urban areas were increasing up until 2000 and rural areas had the

    majority of the population up 2005. After this point Urban population was greater than rural and continued

    to grow whilst rural population stabilized and slightly decreased.

    4. Which of the following is not likely to be a challenges faced by a worker in the informal sector? (1)

    A. Working in dangerous conditions. B. Working long hours C. Earning very little. D. Having to pay high taxes.

    People in the informal sector DO NOT have to pay high tax (D)

    5. Explain why the population is growing rapidly in a megacity in an emerging or developing country you have studied. (4)

    Natural increase as better healthcare standards and accessibility lowers the death rate but the birthrate

    remains high due to culture. Urban pull and rural push factors such as job opportunities cause economically

    active migrants to move to the city.

    6. Suggest why there are big differences in quality of life within megacities in emerging countries. (4)

    Mumbai is a megacity in the emerging world. Within Mumbai vast inequality exists. This is because some

    entrepreneurs and landowners have been able to benefit from the inward investment in business and from

    the low wages paid to most workers that has made them large profits. However others, such as those that

    have recently migrated from the countryside, are very poor living on less that $1 a day due to lack of formal,

    secure jobs and their workers’ rights. In addition, the tax system is set up to benefit the wealth.

    Figure 1. Megacities in 2100

    Figure 2. Rural, Urban Change

  • 7. Explain two challenges for people living in informal settlements. (4)

    High risk of disease due to the lack of sanitation (toilets) which mean drinking water is easily and often polluted. The lack of formal electricity supply means people either steel electricity that is dangerous or a fire risk or use candles and lamps, which increase the air pollution.

    8. State two ways that urban areas are affected by de-industrialisation. (2)

    One negative impact of deindustrialization is a loss of jobs and the factories move away from the cities

    however a positive is the pollution levels in the city often reduce.

    9. For a named megacity in an emerging or developing country, assess the effectiveness of top-down and bottom up strategies that have been used to improve the quality of life. (8 +4 SPaG)

    Top down development – Vision Mumbai

    1. Government funded, high cost scheme to rehouse slum dwellers in flats 2. Many feel $2bn could be better spent on providing education or healthcare 3. 50,000 flats will be created but 200,000 homes destroyed in Dhavari 4. Better flats will improve a wide range of factors (safety, sanitation, electricity, pollution) 5. Flats will only be for those that can prove they have lived there since 1995 6. Destroy community spirit and local businesses that provide vital recycling and jobs within Mumbai

    Bottom Up- Slumaid.ord – Charity Schooling

    1. UK charity funded project so reliant on donations and aid which is not fixed funded. 2. Schooling is reliant on volunteer teachers so standards can vary. 3. Helps the poorest in the community which otherwise wouldn’t benefit from schemes 4. Can only help a tiny fraction of those in need 5. Provides a sustainable future by educating people to help themselves. 6. Will only tackle one issue and doesn’t improve healthcare, jobs or living conditions so many argue is a

    waste of time.

    Explain two reasons why the world is increasingly urbanized. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two reasons for the increasing urbanisation, with 2

    marks available for the reasons and 2 additional marks for their development. Correct points which could be

    developed include:

    • The world is becoming increasingly urbanised because more people are moving from rural villages to big

    cities (1), especially in developing countries where they want to find a job and have a better quality of life

    (1).

    • Factories locate in urban areas because they need large workforce (1) and the availability of their jobs

    attracts more people to the city (1).

    • People moving to cities get married and start families (1), raising the urban population through natural

    increase (1).

    Do not credit more than two reasons. If only one reason is given, a maximum of 2 marks should be awarded.

  • Explain two ways in which world cities influence decision-making. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two ways world cities influence decision-making, with 2

    marks available for the examples and 2 additional marks for their development. Correct points which could

    be developed include:

    • Many TNC headquarters are based in world cities (1), which has influence because decisions are made here

    about what is made/sold, and where economic activity takes place (1).

    • Governments in world cities often have control of powerful military resources (1), which can be used to

    resolve conflicts (1).

    • World cities are major financial centres (1) with trillions of US dollars passing through every year and

    attracting investment from major companies (1).

    Do not credit more than two reasons. If only one reason is given, a maximum of 2 marks should be awarded.

    Suggest one reason for the population change shown in Figure 3. [2 marks]

    This question is point marked. Award 1 mark for the reason population has declined, with an additional mark

    available for development. Correct points that could be developed include:

    • General Motors, a major employer in Detroit, needed fewer workers because it began using robots to

    make cars (1), increasing unemployment and causing people to move away to look for work (1).

    • More car parts are imported by General Motors, putting local companies out of work (1) and causing

    people to leave Detroit to find jobs (1).

    Do not credit more than one reason.

  • Explain two reasons why the economies of developed and developing world cities differ. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should give two reasons why the economies of developed and

    developing world cities vary, with additional marks available for the development of these points. Correct

    points that could be developed include:

    • In developing countries, a far higher percentage of people work in the informal economy (1) as

    opportunities in the formal economy are limited (1).

    • Cities in developed countries will gather more money in taxes (1) because most workers are in the formal

    economy and automatically pay tax, whereas as many as 80% of workers in developing countries are in the

    informal economy so may not pay tax (1).

    • Manufacturing in developed countries is often a smaller industry than in developing countries (1) because

    developed countries have more of a focus on services and financial industries, based on the “knowledge

    economy.”

    Using examples, assess the effects of suburbanisation upon cities. [8 marks]

    This question is marked using levels. The key to this question is the command word ‘assess’. It asks for the

    impacts of suburbanisation to be assessed, so Level 3 should only be awarded when a number of well-

    developed points are made. Look for developed points and well-developed points, rather than just long lists.

    The question also asks for named examples to be given and this is essential for Level 3, along with good

    location knowledge and understanding of the case study. The city of New York on pages 92–93 of the

    student book provides a good case study to use. Only credit assessment of suburbanisation rather than any

    other urban process. For AO2 (Understanding), a maximum of 4 marks can be awarded for correct

    explanations. Positive effects of suburbanisation include:

    • There is more space on the edge of the city (developed by explanation, e.g. people can live in bigger

    houses with bigger gardens, well-developed by saying this would include the quality of life).

    • The transport network develops to serve the suburbs (developed by example, e.g. road bridges built across

    the Hudson and East rivers allow commuters fast access to New York). • There tends to be less crime in

    suburban areas (developed by expanding, e.g. this means people will be living in safer areas). Negative

    effects of suburbanisation include:

    • Movement of people out of the city can lead to urban sprawl (developed by explanation, e.g. this can

    cause environmental destruction of greenfield sites).

    • The people moving to the suburbs tend to be the wealthier residents (developed by explanation, e.g. in

    places like New York this has historically seen white people move out of central areas, leaving poorer

    migrant communities behind).

  • For AO3 some judgment is required (4 marks). This could include:

    • Comments about the positive effects and how far they go towards improving the city, e.g. people have

    more space when they move to the edge of the city, but movement of the rich out of the city can lead to

    poorer communities being left behind.

    • Judgement about how far the negative effects have a detrimental impact on the city.

    • Judgement about whether positive or negative impacts of suburbanisation have the greater impact, e.g.

    the quality of life of the wealthy may improve as they leave the city and transport links may be developed,

    but neither of these have a positive impact on the poor people still living in the inner city.

  • For a named megacity in a developing or emerging country, explain two ways in which its land use

    changes across the city. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should provide two ways land use changes across a megacity in

    either a developing or emerging country. 2 marks can be awarded for stating the changing land use, with an

    additional 2 marks available for development. The sample answer here uses Mumbai as the named

    megacity. Correct points which could be developed include:

    • The CBD of Mumbai is on the tip of the island as it grew around the harbour and historical commercial

    interests (1), there is a small park to the south of the CBD but much larger parks to the north on the edge of

    the city, where land is cheaper (1).

    • Wealthy suburbs are in the inner city close to the CBD (1), while the poorer squatter shacks tend to be on

    the edge of the city where the migrants arrive and settle (1).

    • Some industry is located near the port and the CBD because of transport access (1) but other industries are

    on the edge of the city to take advantage of cheaper land prices (1).

    Do not credit examples in a developed country. The megacity must be named for full marks to be awarded.

    For a named megacity in a developing or emerging country, explain two reasons for its rapid spatial

    growth. [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. Students should provide two reasons for the spatial growth of a megacity in a

    developing or emerging country. 2 marks can be awarded for giving the reasons, with an additional 2 marks

    available for development. The sample answer here uses Mumbai as the named megacity. Correct points

    which could be developed include:

    • The population of Mumbai has increased rapidly and will continue to increase, from 16 million in 2015 to a

    predicted 20 million in 2020 (1). This has led to an expansion of the city as more land is needed to

    accommodate people, with new suburbs being developed (1), with 60% of the city now living in rapidly

    developing slums (1). Mumbai has risen in size from 68 km² to 603 km², including the surrounding area (1).

    Do not credit answers referring to a city in a developed country.

    For a named megacity, assess the social and environmental impacts of its rapid population growth. [12

    marks]

    This question is level marked. 4marks are available for AO3 with an additional 4 awarded for AO4. The final 4

    marks are awarded for SPaG. Students should refer to social and environmental impacts of rapid population

    growth. A good example to use would be that of Mumbai, which students can read about on pages 100–109

    of the student book.

    A03

    • Social impacts include housing shortages (developed by explaining that people build their own homes and

    are often without clean water and electricity).

    • Lack of clean water supplies (developed by expanding, e.g. the demand for housing is so intense that many

    makeshift homes are built without facilities; well developed by explaining how this can lead to illness).

  • • More people in the city burn fuel (developed by explaining how this can lead to air pollution and a

    reduction in air quality that in turn can lead to illness).

    • Social benefits experienced by the fact there is a large workforce, which is good for the manufacturing

    industry which needs a large pool of workers and can improve the quality of life through wages.

    • Many people end up working in the informal economy, which limits the amount of tax collected by the

    government and can limit public spending on services.

    • Environmental impacts include high levels of pollution (developed by expanding, e.g factories dump

    untreated waste into rivers or land pollution caused by uncollected waste).

    • Judgement about which impacts are worse – social or environmental.

    A04

    • Analysis of figures which support judgement about the findings, e.g. the growth in population affects the

    number of people per toilet, quoting figures from Figure 4 on page 103 of the student book.

    • There are more people sharing one home and overcrowding as a result of population increase, with figures

    available in Figure 4 on page 103 of the student book.

  • For a named megacity, assess the reasons for variations in the quality of life for its people. [12 marks]

    This question is level marked. 4 marks are available for AO3 with an additional 4 awarded for AO4. The final

    4 marks are awarded for SPaG. Students should refer to a range of variations in the quality of life and use a

    named example. A good example to use would be that of Mumbai, which students can read about on pages

    100–109 of the student book.

    A03

    • Education (developed by giving examples of prospects for professionals and those working in Dharavi’s

    informal economy; well-developed by assessing the impact of speaking English).

    • Background (developed by explaining that the job of the parents affects the life chances of the children;

    well-developed by presenting a contrast between middle class urban dwellers and those arriving in the city

    with a rural farming background).

    • Income (developed by assessing the impact of different incomes and the access to services that they allow;

    well-developed by introducing opinions about access to housing).

    • Judgement about which of the factors has a greater impact on the quality of life.

    AO4

    • Giving examples of the differences in incomes, e.g. those on page 103 of the student book which compare

    lifestyles of a person earning £16 000 a year with someone earning £230 a month.

    • Including and integrating data in their answer, with reference to the quality of life, e.g. 50% of women are

    malnourished in Dharavi, seen in Figure 4 on page 103 of the student book.

    • Giving figures related to the rent in Dharavi (£2 a month) compared to apartments that cost £320 000.

  • Explain the impact on people of two urban environmental problems in developing or emerging megacities.

    [4 marks]

    This question is point marked. 2 marks are available for explaining two different urban environmental

    problems, with additional marks to be awarded for the development of each. Correct points which could be

    developed include:

    • In Mumbai, factories use the Mithi River to dump untreated waste (1), contaminating the water used by

    many people living in the city and endangering their health (1).

    • Burning coal and the use of older vehicles that give off high levels of emissions pollutes the air in Mumbai

    (1), leading to respiratory diseases and other health problems for people living in the city (1).

    Do not credit problems that do not relate to the environment. The answers must be based on megacities in

    developing or emerging countries.

    For a named megacity, assess the success of a top down development project designed to improve quality

    of life. [12 marks]

    This question is level marked. 4 marks are available for AO3 with an additional 4 awarded for AO4. The final

    4 marks are awarded for SPaG. Students should refer to a named example and relevant top-down

    development. A good example to use would be Vision Mumbai, which students can read about on pages

    106–107 of the student book.

    A03

    • New flats replaced slums (developed by adding that the flats had piped water, reducing the chances of

    illness and improving health for the residents).

    • Improvements to railways (developed by expanding, e.g. this was done to reduce the number of deaths;

    well-developed by adding how platforms were raised to prevent people falling onto the line and 72 new

    trains introduced).

    • Many did not want to move and preferred a programme of slum improvement (developed by expanding,

    e.g. the rents now cost more in the new flats).

    • Businesses had to close (developed by explaining how this affected employment for those working in the

    slums and had an adverse effect on recycling).

    • Judgements made as to whether the top-down development was a positive or negative approach. AO4 •

    Analysis of figures to back up arguments made, including those found on pages 106–107 of the student

    book.

    • Presentation of figures, e.g. 200 000 people moved from Dharavi when the homes were demolished.

  • For a named megacity, assess the success of a bottom up development project designed to improve the

    lives of ordinary people. [12 marks]

    This question is level marked. 4 marks are available for AO3 with an additional 4 awarded for AO4. The final

    4 marks are awarded for SPaG. Students should refer to a named bottom-up development and assess its

    success. A good example to use would Lok Seva Sangam (LSS), which students can read about on pages 108–

    109 of the student book.

    A03

    • Surveys to detect TB and leprosy (developed by judging the impact on people’s lives, e.g. extending their

    life and improving quality of life).

    • Limited funding (developed by explaining LSS only helps one community and has not been able to expand

    in the decades it has been established).

    • Improving sanitation, educating people how to be healthier, and reducing the level of illness.

    • Judgement about how effective the work of LSS has been, with reasons.

    AO4

    • Figures to show the progress made by LSS (e.g. 4000 leprosy patients in 1980s, reduced to 219 in 2007).

    • Quantifying the work of LSS by adding figures, including those given on page 108 of the student book, such

    as the treatment of 30 000 people in 30 years.

    • Demonstrating case study knowledge, e.g. in Mumbai LSS employs three full-time nurses and several

    paramedics.