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Lesson5impacts climate and change Edexcel Geography GCSE B

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  • 2.2b What will climates be like in the future?To understand that people everywhere will face climate change in the futureTo understand some predicted global impactsTo gain an insight into possible risks for the UK and Bangladesh

    Climate futures?

    Specification Statement-Future climates are likely to present major challenges to the UK and especially to people in the developing worldLessons 5 and 6

  • Possible Global Impacts Climate concerns While the outcomes may vary from country-to-country, the report said some "broad consequences" could be predicted: agriculture and rural development will bear the brunt of climate risk extreme poverty and malnutrition will increase as water insecurity increases more extreme weather patterns will increase the risk of floods and droughts shrinking glaciers and rising sea levels will reduce access to fresh waterBecause industrialised nations have focused their climate change initiatives on reducing the amount of greenhouse gases being pumped into the atmosphere, support for adaptation in developing countries has been "piecemeal and fragmented", the report says. Task-Watch the video and make notes on possible impacts of climate change on a global scaleWays to prevent worst scenarios happening video of possible impacts and solutions

  • AfricaLarge increases in numbers facing water scarcity. It is likely to affect livelihoods, the report by the International Panel on Climate Change says. Projected reductions in the areas for growing crops, and in length of the growing season, mean increased risk of hunger. In some areas, yields could be reduced by up to 50% by 2020. Rising sea levels threaten large cities. Degradation of coral reefs and mangroves is likely, with impacts on local fisheries and tourism. Rising temperatures, coupled with over-fishing, will decrease the supply of fish from large lakes, with important impacts on food supplies. Arid or semi-arid areas in northern, western, eastern and parts of southern Africa are becoming drier, while equatorial Africa and other parts of southern Africa are getting wetter, the report says. The continent is, on average, 0.5C warmer than it was 100 years ago, but temperatures have risen much higher in some areas - such as a part of Kenya which has become 3.5C hotter in the past 20 years, the agencies report.

  • AsiaGlacier melting in the Himalayas is virtually certain to disrupt water supplies within the next 20 to 30 years. Floods and rock avalanches are virtually certain to increase. Heavily-populated coastal regions, including the deltas of rivers such as the Ganges and Mekong, are likely to be at risk of increased flooding. Economic development is likely to be impacted by the combination of climatic change, urbanisation, and rapid economic and population growth. Forecast changes in temperature and rainfall are likely to reduce crop yields overall, increasing the risk of hunger. The presence of lethal diarrhoeal diseases associated with floods and droughts is expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia and rises in coastal water temperature could exacerbate cholera in South Asia.

  • AustralasiaOngoing water shortages, notably in southern and eastern Australia, are likely to get worse by 2030. Ecologically important regions such as the Great Barrier Reef and Kakadu National Park are likely to lose a significant part of their wildlife before then, by 2020. Some coastal communities are very likely to see an increased risk of coastal storms and flooding. Temperature rises of 1C-2C are likely to bring benefits to cooler areas, such as New Zealand, in the form of longer growing seasons and reduced energy demand. Greater warming is likely to bring a net negative impact - such as increased risk of drought and fire.

  • EuropeNearly all European regions are expected to be negatively affected by some future impacts of climate change. Central and Eastern European countries could face less summer rainfall, causing higher water stress. Health risks due to heat waves are expected to increase. Forest productivity is expected to fall and the frequency of peatland fires to increase. Southern European countries are very likely to see reduced water supplies, lower crop production, more wildfires and health impacts from increased heatwaves. Northern countries are likely to benefit from increased crop yields, forest productivity, and food supplies from the North Atlantic. By 2020, most areas of Europe are likely to see an increased flood risk.

  • South and Central AmericaIncreasing temperatures and decreases in soil water in the eastern Amazon region would lead to replacement of tropical forest by savannah. Species extinctions are likely. Drier areas are likely to see salinisation and desertification of agricultural land, with falling crop yields and livestock productivity reducing food security. However, soybean yields are likely to increase in temperate zones. Sea level rise is very likely to bring flooding to low-lying regions such as the coast of El Salvador, Guyana and the Rio de la Plata estuary. Increasing sea temperatures are likely to impact coral reefs and south-east Pacific fish stocks. Changes in rainfall patterns and the disappearance of glaciers are projected to significantly affect water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.

  • North AmericaWarming in western mountains is very likely to reduce snowpack, bringing more floods in winter and reduced water supplies in summer. Increases in problems with pests, diseases and forest fires are likely. Cities with a history of heat waves are likely to experience many more, with potential health impacts, especially for the elderly. Rising sea levels, severe weather and storm surges, combined with population growth in coastal areas, are very likely to increase economic losses.

  • Arctic and Polar RegionsReductions are likely in the thickness and extent of glaciers and ice sheets, and the extent of sea ice and permafrost. The depth of summer permafrost melting is likely to increase. Changes to natural ecosystems are likely to impact migrating birds, mammals and higher predators adversely. Specific ecosystems and habitats are expected to be vulnerable, as climatic barriers to species invasions are lowered. There are virtually certain to be both negative and positive effects on Arctic peoples. Detrimental impacts would include those on infrastructure and traditional indigenous ways of life while beneficial effects would include reduced heating costs and more navigable northern sea routes.

  • Small low rise IslandsSea level rise is likely to worsen floods, storm surges and coastal erosion, with impacts on the socio-economic wellbeing of island communities. Beach erosion and coral bleaching are likely to reduce tourism. There is strong evidence that water resources in small islands are likely to be seriously compromised. Increased invasion by non-native species is likely.

  • 6 degrees could change our world!!! what if temp raises by 1 degree? by 2 degrees? by 3 degrees by 4 degrees by 5 degrees by 6 degreesTaskProduce a piece of work called 6 degrees could change our world It could be a written piece describing possible impacts or a visual illustration of the predicted possible impacts based on the globe warming by 6 degrees

  • Task-Using the handouts you have been given and the video notes you took on possible global impacts of Climate Change- produce an annotated world map of the possible impacts across the globe

  • Possible Impacts on the UKBy 2080, London will be between 2C and 6C hotter than it is now, Every part of the UK is likely to be wetter in winter and drier in summer, according to the projections. Summer rainfall could decrease by about 20% in the south of England and in Yorkshire and Humberside by the middle of the century.An effective global deal at December's UN climate talks in Copenhagen could keep the summer temperature rise in southern England to about 2C, the projections suggest. But if greenhouse gas emissions rise quickly, that figure could be as high as 12C, "This research confirms that not only is climate change already having a serious impact in Britain, but that we are also locked into further impacts, and that these impacts will get much worse unless we act now to tackle the problem."

  • By 2020 weather forecastExcess summer heat- watch the clip and answer these questions-Why will the problem be worse in cities? What is the Urban Heat Island phenomenon? What are they doing on London Underground to try and combat rising temperatures?What happens to train tracks and tar on roads in hot weather? What will happen to Summers in the SE?What downsides are there to the proposed new reservoir at Abingdon? Why are cars a problem?

  • The Urban Heat Island EffectThe idea that urban (city) areas will always be marginally warmer than rural areas due to the high

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