Forandring som organisatorisk livsstil - Aalborg .Forandring som organisatorisk livsstil Et systEmatisk

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  • Forandring som organisatorisk livsstil Et systEmatisk littEraturrEviEw af planlagtE og EmErgErEndE forandringEr

    Af Bibi Mørkhøj & Diana Yaseen

    10. semester Kommunikation

    Aalborg Universitet vejleder:

    lise Billund

  • titelblad

    Specialerapport

    Titel: forandring som organisatorisk livsstil Undertitel: Et systematisk litteraturreview af planlagte og Emergerende forandringer

    Forfattere: Bibi mørkhøj & diana yaseen

    Uddannelse: 10. semester, kommunikation, aalborg universitet

    Projektperiode: 01. januar 2017 - 02. juni 2017

    Vejleder: lise Billund

    Antal anslag: 274.090 Antal totalsider: 114,2

  • ABSTRACT

    Purpose: The purpose of this master thesis is to understand how theories on planned and emergent change has

    evolved since the 1980ies and how the two concepts are portrayed in the academic literature. Furthermore we wish

    to understand how emergent and planned change affect the organizations and the organizational members. The

    findings are summarized in a model which is meant to guide both researchers and practitioners in choosing and

    implementing the most suitable approach to organizational change, for their specific organization.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on a literary review in two parts; The first part mainly has a

    historical focus, but it also involves the significance of underlying values and assumptions in change theory. The

    second part of the review takes a more systematic approach, with focus on summarizing how emergent and planned

    change are portrayed, based on ten factors typically used to define the two concepts. In continuation of the review it

    is discussed, whether the two approaches to organizational change should be implemented separately or if it would

    be beneficial to combine them. Furthermore, the discussions include the importance of leadership and

    communication during the different types of organisational change.

    Findings: It seems that even though the emergent change approach arose as a response to the critique of the planned

    change approach, the planned approach is still widely used. Our research shows that the planned change approach is

    associated with values and assumptions that typically leads to a focus on economical growth through a top-down

    management approach. The emergent change approach is s associated with humanistic values and assumptions which

    prompt a focus on developing organizational capabilities by choosing a bottom-up approach to leadership. We

    summarize by recommend 10 points of attention to help guide the choice of the most appropriate approach. Our

    belief is that the emergent approach is much more viable long-term, as it takes into account the complex nature of

    organizations today and aims to prevent inertia rather than treat it. Therefore we believe that organizational change

    in general should be orientated more towards the emergent change approach.

    Keywords: Organizational change; Planned change; Emergent change; Continuous change; Episodic change; Inertia;

    Complexity theory; Leadership; Communication; Employee welfare

  • 1

    INDHOLDSFORTEGNELSE

    1. Introduktion ................................................................................................................................... 4

    1.1 Organisationsforandringer ............................................................................................................ 5

    1.2 Fra idé til undersøgelse ................................................................................................................. 6

    1.2.1 To typer forandringer ............................................................................................................. 8

    2. Problemformulering .......................................................................................................................... 10

    3. Videnskabsteori................................................................................................................................. 11

    3.1 Epistemologi og ontologi ............................................................................................................ 12

    3.2 Hermeneutisk socialkonstruktivisme .......................................................................................... 13

    3.2.1 Fortolkning og konstruktion ................................................................................................. 13

    3.2.2 Erkendelsesinteresse ........................................................................................................... 14

    3.3 Erkendelse og vidensproduktion ................................................................................................ 15

    3.3.1 Det videnskabelige objekt .................................................................................................... 15

    3.3.2 Subjekt-objekt relationen .................................................................................................... 16

    3.3.3. Vidensvalidering og sandhedskriterium.............................................................................. 18

    4. Metodisk tilgang ............................................................................................................................... 20

    4.1 Litteraturreview i det humanistiske felt ..................................................................................... 21

    4.2 Litteraturreviews alsidige formål ................................................................................................ 23

    4.2.1 Indledende litteraturreview ................................................................................................. 24

    4.2.2 Systematisk litteraturreview ................................................................................................ 25

    4.3 Strategier for litteratursøgning ................................................................................................... 26

    4.3.1 Mindmap og CHIP-tool ......................................................................................................... 27

    4.3.2 Databasesøgning .................................................................................................................. 30

    4.3.3 Snowball teknikken .............................................................................................................. 36

    4.3.4 Serendipity ........................................................................................................................... 37

  • 2

    4.4 Dokumentation af søgninger ...................................................................................................... 37

    4.4.1 Søgeprotokol aka greatest hits ............................................................................................ 39

    4.4.2 Referencehåndtering ........................................................................................................... 42

    4.5 Udvælgelse af litteratur .............................................................................................................. 44

    4.5.1 Inklusion og eksklusionskriterier .......................................................................................... 44

    4.5.2 Screening med SQ3R ............................................................................................................ 45

    4.5.3 Litteraturreduktion .............................................................................................................. 49

    4.5.4 Tendenser i litteraturen ....................................................................................................... 51

    5. Litteraturreview ................................................................................................................................ 55

    5.1 Struktur for litteraturreview ....................................................................................................... 55

    5.1.2 Indledende review ............................................................................................................... 56

    5.1.2 Det systematiske review ...................................................................................................... 56

    6. Indledende litteraturreview .............................................................................................................. 58

    6.1 Forskellige forgreninger .............................................................................................................. 59

    6.1.1 Triple Helix ........................................................................................................................... 60

    6.1.2 Organizational Development og Change Management ....................................................... 61

    6.1.3 Opsamling på feltets forgreninger ....................................................................................... 63

    6.2 Ideologier og værdier .................................................................................................................. 64

    6.3 Fra planlagt til emergerende ...................................................................................................... 66

    7. Systematisk review ...................................................................................................