Chapter 7 Deviant Behavior and Social Control. Normal v. Deviant Eccentric Person Creative/ Unique Person Deviant Person

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Text of Chapter 7 Deviant Behavior and Social Control. Normal v. Deviant Eccentric Person Creative/ Unique...

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  • Chapter 7 Deviant Behavior and Social Control
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  • Normal v. Deviant Eccentric Person Creative/ Unique Person Deviant Person
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  • Role of Culture Norms + values = MORAL CODE The symbolic system in terms of which behavior takes on the quality of being good or bad, right or wrong.
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  • Analyze Deviant Behavior What a person did Who the person is The social and cultural contexts of the act Deviant behavior: Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in question.
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  • Making Moral Judgements Universally accepted deviant behavior Incest Genocide Improper drug use Torture of humans Do you agree?
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  • Functions of Deviance Durkheim- [its] an integral part of all healthy societies. Helps reawaken society Redefine moral order Promote organization Provides clarification Prevents more serious instances of nonconformity
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  • Dysfunctions of Deviance Threaten social order Causes confusion about the norms and values of society Undermines trust Diverts valuable resources from other needs Police force FBI
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  • Mechanisms of Social Control Internal Means of Control: Consist of other peoples responses to a persons behavior Rewards and punishments External Means of Control: Sanctions: Are rewards and penalties that a groups members use to regulate an individuals behavior
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  • Positive and Negative Sanctions Positive Sanctions: Actions that encourage the individual to continue acting in a certain way Negative Sanctions: Actions that discourage the repetition or continuation of the behavior
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  • Formal and Informal Formal Sanctions: Are applied in a public ritual, as in the awarding of a prize or an announcement of expulsion, and are usually under the direct or indirect control of authorities Informal Sanctions: Involve things such as gossip or a congratulations
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  • A Typology of Sanctions PositiveNegative 1. Informal Positive: smiles, pats on back, and so on 2. Informal Negative: frowns, avoidance, and so on 3. Formal Positive: awards, testimonials, and so on 4. Formal negative: legal sanctions, and so on Informal Formal
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  • Theories of Crime and Deviance Medieval Law: If two persons fell under suspicion of crime, the uglier or more deformed was to be regarded as more probably guilty
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  • Biological Theories Cesare Lombroso Italian M.D. emphasized that deviant behavior was not of free will but of anatomical structures of the skull Apelike structure Primitive instinctual behavior Evolutionary throwbacks Tested the skulls and dissected the bodies of dead prisoners and determined that criminal crimes were made by people with animal-like bodies. The chromosomal linkage for supposed criminals was XXY Contemporary studies show that environment and social interaction determine behavior
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  • Psychological Theories Freuds psychoanalytic theory: Our unconscious, which causes irrational thoughts, feelings we are not aware of Causes deviant acts
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  • Behavioral Theories People modify behaviors in response to punishment or reward Wilson and Hernstein claimed, that people choose to do things because the outcome would be more desirable then doing something else Restating individual CHOICE
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  • Techniques of Neutralization Process that justifies deviant behavior Denial of responsibility Denial of injury Denial of the victim Condemnation of the authorities Appealing to higher principles Standards are greater Labeling Theory- You carry the name then you continue the action Affects socialization
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  • The Importance of Laws Laws are passed to give the state the power of enforcement It is important not to confuse a societys moral code with its legal code The legal code consist of the formal rules, called laws, adopted by a societys political authority
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  • The Emergence of Laws Consensus approach assumes that laws are merely a formal version of the norms and values of the people Its a functionalist model for explaining a societys legal system As the norms and values in society change, so will the law Conflict approach to laws assumes that the elite use their power to enact and enforce laws that support their own economic interest and go against the interest of the lower classes The laws change as the institutions change
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  • Crime in the United States Crime: Is behavior that violates societys legal code Violent Crime: An unlawful event such as homicide, rape and assault that can result in injury to a person Property Crime: An unlawful act that is committed with the intent of gaining property but that does not involve the use or threat or force against an individual Felonies: Offenses punishable by a year or more in state prison
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  • Crime Statistics Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Began in 1929 How the FBI measures crime nationally. They receive monthly and annual reports from law enforcement agencies throughout the country National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
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  • Crime Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Began in 1973 to collect information on crimes suffered by individuals and households, wether they were reported to the police or not Collects detailed information on the frequency and nature of the crimes of rape, sexual assault, personal robbery, aggravated and simple assault, household burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft
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  • Kinds of Crime in the US
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  • Juvenile Crime Breaking of criminal laws by individuals younger than age 18 2/3 of serious crime Typical serious juvenile offenders Most common crime: Larceny- theft Main difference from adult crime
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  • Juvenile Courts Courts are clogged, detention centers overcrowded Violent offenders often receive little or not punishment Are they helping? Recidivism: Repeated criminal behavior after punishment
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  • Violent Crime What are they? Low rate compared to other years 54% know their attackers 70% of rape and sexual assault victims know their attackers US one of highest homicide rates
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  • Property Crime 75% of ALL crime is against property Examples: burglary, auto theft, larceny theft 2007 over 17.5 million households affected
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  • White Collar Crimes Acts of individuals who, while occupying positions of social responsibility or high prestige, break the law in the course of their work for the purpose of illegal personal or organizational gain Examples: embezzlement, bribery, fraud, kickback schemes Greater economic impact
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  • Victimless Crimes Acts that violate the laws meant to enforce the moral codes Examples: narcotics, illegal gambling, public drunkenness, prostitution Person them self may be the victim Indirectly leads to other crimes Some eventually become decriminalized
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  • Victims of Crime A persons race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status affects whether they are more likely to be affected
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  • Criminal Justice in the United States Criminal Justice System- Personnel and procedures for arrest, trial, and punishment to deal with violations of the law three main categories: police courts prisons
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  • The Police Highly decentralized 3 levels federal Federal State Local
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  • The Federal Level: US does not have a national police system Congress enacts federal laws FBI enforces these laws The State Police: patrol highways regulate traffic primary responsibility of enforcing some state laws other services they provide: criminal identification system, police training programs, computer- based records systems to assist local police departments The Local Police: Limited to the state, town, or municipality in which the officer was sworn into
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  • 63% of whites had confidence in police 26 % of african americans had confidence in police 35% of blacks have little no no confidence in police Studies have shown that cities with high crime rates have the most police officers, so will it benefit a city to add more police to the streets? Ways to determine if police presence is effective
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  • The Courts Dual court system: State Federal Some crimes can violate both state and federal statuses State court system Higher trial courts All states have appeal courts
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  • The Federal Court System 3 basic levels US district courts Supreme Court
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  • Prisons We cannot imagine being without prisons Represent a fundamental defense against crime and criminals Before prisons Goals of imprisonment: Four goals: Separate criminals from society Punish criminal behavior Deter criminal behavior Rehabilitate criminal
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  • Sociological theory Labeling theory Certain changes are needed Halfway houses If process of de-labeling were made available, former inmates will find it easier to win reentry into society
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  • A Shortage of