Deviance & Social ControlA deviant is....
Deviant?Deviance - behavior that violates significant social norms-Social control: techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society-Sanctions: penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm-Society partly defined by peoples willingness to accept shared beliefs and practices-Can limit individual freedom and advance interests of some at expense of othersStigma - mark of a social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
-mark of social control"There is a social expectation for a man that he can do it himself, and if you can't, 'you are a sissy'."All cars belonging to people convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol should carry a special bumper stick that reads "WARNING: This driver as received a DUI"Stigma-Conformity: the act of going along with peers=individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
-Obedience: compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
ObedienceSocial Functions of Deviance
1. Clarifying Norms - define the boundaries of acceptable behavior
2. Unifying the Group - draw the line between conforming members of society & the "outsiders"-sense of community & shared values3. Diffusing Tension - minor acts of deviance relieve tension-Example: Protest
4. Promoting Social Change - Deviance identifies problem areas-When lots of people violate a certain norm, it's often an indication that norm needs to changeSocial Functions of Deviance
5. Providing Jobs - Judges, Lawyers, Police, Parole Officers, Reporters-Criminologists - someone who studies criminal behavior
Social Functions of Deviance
Explaining Deviance1. Strain Theory - views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, & structure of society-Incompatible Goals & Means (to achieve goals)-Anomie-situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer acceptable-leaves people without sufficient guidelines for behavior
Cultural goals which are acceptable in our societyWealth Power Status Material Goods Acceptable means to achieve themEducationJobsSome talentsExplaining Deviance2. Conflict Perspective - competition & social inequality lead to deviance-Struggle between the haves & have nots-People with power commit deviant acts to keep power-People w/o power do so:1. To obtain Economic RewardsOR2. Feeling of powerlessness / low self-esteemExplaining Deviance3. Interactionist Perspective - 3 Categories:1. Control Theory - deviance is a natural occurrence, but control theorists study WHY people conform-People that conform have weak ties to a communityExplaining Deviance2. Cultural Transmission Theory - deviance as a learned behavior through interaction with others-Differential Association - proportion of associations a person has with deviant vs. no-deviant individuals-if you spend more time with a deviant, you are more likely to become deviantExplaining DevianceCultural Transmission (Cont)Techniques of Neutralization - suspending moral beliefs to commit deviant acts5 Techniques1. Denying Responsibility2. Denying Injury3. Denying the Victim4. Condemning the Authority5. Appealing to Higher LoyaltiesExplaining Deviance3. Labeling Theory - how individuals come to be identified as deviant-2 Types of DevianceA. Primary Deviance - nonconformity that goes undetected by those in authority-occasional acts & well-concealed actsB. Secondary Deviance - results in the individual being labeled as deviant & accepting the label as true
CrimeThere ought to be a law against...Crime - any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the governmentHow many dramas & reality shows focus on crime or law enforcement?
Types of Crime1. Violent Crime2. Crime Against Property3. Victimless Crime4. White-Collar Crime5. Organized CrimeCriminal-Justice System - system of police, courts, & corrections
1. Police -Police Discretion - power held by police to decide who is actually arrested
-Racial Profiling - practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crime than white Americans
1. __________ Harold, age 17, robs a liquor store at gunpoint.
2. __________ Laurel leaves a store with change for a $10 bill after she realizes she gave the cashier a $5 bill.
3.__________ Rita approaches a man for purposes of prostitution.
4.__________ Ken pays a prostitute after receiving her services.
5. __________ Dan parks in a handicap zone and he is not handicapped nor are any of his passengers.
6. __________ Mike is a narcotic addict who pushes heroin to anyone who will buy.
7. __________ Tom and Jerry are two homosexuals who live together as though they were married.
8.__________ Sylvia pickpockets an individuals wallet containing $150.
9. __________ Ed refuses to pay income tax because he does not support government policies.
10. __________ Patty is caught with two ounces of marijuana.
11. __________ Dorothy is caught with two kilos of marijuana.
12. __________ Rob refuses to wear a helmet while riding a motorcycle.
13. __________ A company pollutes a river with waste from its factory.
14.__________ Lafe gets drunk and hits a child while speeding through a school zone.
15. __________Vince observes his best friend shoplifting but does not turn him in.2. Courts -Plea Bargaining - process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a less charge in return for a lighter sentence3. Corrections - Sanctions such as imprisonment, parole, probation, and community service used to punish criminals4 Basic Functions1. Retribution - punishing as an act of revenge for the victim & society
2. Deterrence - discourage offenders from committing future crimes & making society think twice before committing a crime4 Basic Functions (Cont)3. Rehabilitation - reform criminals so they can return society as law-abiding citizens
4. Social Protection - by limiting the freedom of offenders, society prevents them from committing additional crimesRecidivism - term for repeated criminal behavior-62% of released prisoners will be charged with new crimes-41% will return to prison within 3 years of releaseA fifteen-year-old was caught shoplifting a shirt from Scheels. What sentence would fit the crime and be most likely to encourage this teen to stop engaging in illegal behavior?4. Juvenile-Justice System - offenders younger than 18What do you think is the primary cause of teenage crime?Do you believe that justice should mainly consist of punishment, or should it also involve reform and support for both the criminal and the community? Why?