ATHENA - Slide LPI

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Mc tiu kha hc

Active Directory

Exchange server

Qun tr mng LinuxPrint/ File server DHCP server

Proxy server

ISA server

FTP server

IIS server

SQL server

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Mc tiu kha hc (tt)

Mc tiu kha hc (tt)

S dng my tnh Linux p ng cc yu cu chc nng nh my tnh Windows. Thay th m hnh mng cc server Windows bng m hnh mng cc server Linux. Cc server Linux p ng vai tr nh server Windows, c kh nng qun l tt, chu li tt.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

1

Ni dung kha hc Installing Linux as a Server Technical Summary of Linux Distributions Installing Linux in a Server Configuration Installing Software

Ni dung kha hc (tt) Single host Administration Managing User The Command Line Booting and shutting down File Systems Core System Services Compiling the Linux Kernel

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Ni dung kha hc (tt) Intranet services Networking Fundamentals DHCP server Samba/ NFS server NIS LDAP

Ni dung kha hc (tt) Internet services FPT/ SSH server DNS server Web server/ Database server Proxy server Mail server Firewall server IDS

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

2

Hi & p

Technical summary of Linux Distributions

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Ni dung

M ngun m v GPL

Phn mm m ngun m v GNU General Public License. Lch s pht trin ca Linux

GNU GPL: GNU General Public License.

c im ca h iu hnh Linux. Khc bit gia h iu hnh Linux v Windows. Li ch v hn ch ca h iu hnh Linux. Cc phin bn Linux chnh.

Mi ngi u c th c source code ca m ngun m, chnh sa, bin dch theo ring. M ngun m chnh sa c th dng cho mc ch ring hoc cng khai. Nu cng khai phi cung cp y source code.

Linux l h iu hnh m ngun m, c phn phi theo quy nh ca GNU GPL.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

3

M ngun m v GPL (tt)C th tnh ph khi phn phi mt sn phm c ngun gc l m ngun m. Tuy nhin, khi phn phi phi km theo source code.

Lch s Linux

Linux c Linus Torvalds vit nm 1991.

c cng ng Internet n nhn. Nhiu ngi tnh nguyn tham gia pht trin Linux.

Khi ngi s dng c mt phn mm m ngun m, h c t do chnh sa, chia s, phn phi li

H iu hnh Linux gm: Linux kernel. Nhng ng dng v tin ch GNU. Nhng ng dng khc.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

c im ca Linux

c im ca Linux

Hardware: Chy trn nhiu platform, Alpha, AMD, Intel, MIPS, PowerPC, Sparc

Giao din ha: H tr GNOME, KDE, Linux khng yu cu giao din ha.

Software: http://www.freshmeat.net http://www.linuxberg.com http://www.rpmfind.net/linux/RPM/

Ngn ng lp trnh: C, C++, FORTRAN, Java, Perl, Python, PHP D dng qun l t xa: D dng remote t xa bng commandline hoc GUI.

Document:http://www.tldp.org/

Tnh n nh cao: Linux c th chy nhiu nm, khng cn reboot.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

4

Linux v WindowsWindows l h iu hnh c thit k cho single users. Unix l h iu hnh c k cho multi users. Nhiu ngi cng chy mt chng trnh trn mt my tnh vo cng mt thi im.

Linux v Windows (tt)

S tch bit gia GUI v Kernel: GUI l thnh phn chim nhiu memory nht, v rt phc tp, d b li nht. Vi Windows, GUI v kernel l khng th tch ri => tin li cho ngi dng. Vi Linux, GUI tch bit vi kernel. Ngi s dng c th s dng GUI hay khng, hoc s dng nhng GUI khc nhau => cho php ty bin, ph hp vi server, vn khng cn GUI, tit kim c memory, v t b li.

T Windows 95, h tr multi user. Tuy nhin, Unix h tr multi user t 1969.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Linux v Windows (tt)Tt c nhng cu hnh ca Windows c lu trong registry. Khi mun chnh sa rt phc tp. Thng phi c phm mm third-party. Cu hnh ca Linux l file text, v vy d dng chnh sa theo mun. C th xa b hon ton nhng cu hnh c khi khng cn

Li ch & hn ch ca Linux ch

Tnh n nh cao v hu nh khng c virus.

Nhiu kin cho rng ai cng c th kim sot source code khin n khng an ton. Tuy nhin, b mt khng phi l an ton. Code ca linux c hng ngn programer kim tra. Nu c bug, d dng c tm thy hn m ngun ng.

=> khng c mt chun cu hnh. Mi dch v nh ngha mt chun cu hnh ring.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

5

Li ch & hn ch ca Linux (tt) ch (tt)

Cc phin bn Linux

Kh s dng cho ngi mi bt u.

Debian GNU/Linux http://www.debian.org

Khng c h tr, khng c document y . Bug vn tn ti.

MandrakeSoft http://www.linux-mandrake.com

Khi pht sinh li, khng phi ai cng c kh nng hiu li.

Red Hat http://www.redhat.com

Slackware Linux http://www.slackware.com

SuSE http://www.suse.com

TurboLinux http://www.turbolinux.com

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Hi & p

Installing Linux in a Server Configuration

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

6

Ni dungTm tt cc bc ci t. Kim tra s h tr phn cng.

Cc bc ci t b

Chn la kiu ci t: T CD local. Qua mi trng mng. T mt volume trn network server. Dng CD shared t my tnh khc Qua FTP, HTTP.

Cu hnh mng.

Linux file system. Linux boot loader.

Cc mode hot ng ca Linux.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Cc bc ci t (tt) b tt)

H tr phn cng

Kim tra s h tr phn cng. Phn chia partition: Phn chia t ng hoc theo nh dng ring. Bt buc phi c phn vng / v /swap. Chia cc phn vng cn li theo nhu cu.

Kim tra s h tr phn cng. http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl.

Cu hnh mng. Chn la software ci t. Chn la boot loader. Tin hnh ci t.

Hu ht cc distribution ca Linux t nhn din cu hnh phn cng nh: PCMCIA, CDROM, Hard drive, Laptop issues, Memory, NIC, Modem, Mouse, SCSI adaptor Cn ch n nhng thit b phn cng c bit, mi.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

7

Linux file system

Linux file systems (tt)

Mc nh, cc phn vng c mount trn phn vng / /swap: virtual memory. /bin: lnh quan trng. /boot: file cu hnh boot loader. /dev: file devices. /etc: file cu hnh. /home: d liu ca users. /lib: file th vin quan trng, v kernel module.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Cu hnh mng

Linux boot loader

Thit lp cc thng s cu hnh mng cho server: IP Address Netmask Gateway IP Address Nameserver IP Address Domain name Hostname

Boot loader LILO GRUB

Boot

loader cho php chn h iu hnh no boot. Ti boot loader, c th can thip bng command thay i cc tham s boot.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

8

Linux boot loader (tt)

Mode hot ng ca Linux

File grub.conf

Linux c cc mode hot ng sau: 0: shutdown. 1: single mode. 2: multi user without networking. 3: multi user with networking. 4: unused. 5: graphic. 6: reboot.

boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=10 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz hiddenmenu title Linux Fedora (2.6.5-1.358smp) root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.5-1.358smp ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb quiet initrd /initrd-2.6.5-1.358smp.img title Windows 2000 rootnoverify (hd0,0) chainloader +1An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Hi & p

Installing software

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

9

Ni dungAdd/ Remove Program. Redhat Package Manager (RPM).

Add/ Remove Program

Ci t bng cng c graphic add/ remove program ca Linux gii quyt c cc vn sau: thao tc n gin, d thc hin. t ng ci cc gi ph thuc. d qun l.

Ci t bng lnh rpm.

Ci t bng source. Gii thiu mt s ng dng.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Redhat Package Managerc pht trin u tin bi Redhat, sau c cc phin bn linux khc s dng rng ri: Fedora, Mandrake, SuSe Gi rpm c dng:

Lnh rpm

Ci t mt package: rpm i package.rpm

Update mt package: rpm U package.rpm

G b mt package: rpm e package.rpm

Mt s option khc s dng trong ci t: --nodeps: cho php ci t, b qua cc gi ph thuc. --force: bt buc upgrade, b qua conflicts. --test: khng ci t, upgrage, ch test. --requires: lit k cc gi ph thuc.

Ci t bng lnh rpm.

y l kiu ci t ph bin nht ca linux. D ci t, d remove.An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

10

Lnh rpm (tt)

Lnh rpm (tt)

Cc option truy vn: kt hp vi option -q -a: hin th danh sch cc package ci t. -f : hin th package s hu . -p : hin th thng tin ca package_name. (package_name cha c ci t). -i : hin th thng tin ca package. -l : hin th file cha trong package_name.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

Lnh rpm (tt)

Ci t bng source

Tng thch vi mi phin bn Linux. c ng gi s dng kiu GNU Zip (.gz) hoc BZip2 (bz2). .tar.gz or .tar.bz2

Gii nn bng lnh: tar xvzf .tar.gz tar xvjf .tar.bz2

c file INSTALL hoc README c nhng ch dn ring bit ca gi ci t.

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

An Ninh Mng ATHENA , www.athena.com.vn

11

Ci t bng source (tt)

Ci t bng