Inventions And Discoveries

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  • 1. Applied Technology Discoveries Inventions

2. Conundrum

  • Since No Hypothesis is Verifiable or Falsifiable,
  • how do we get Inventions or Discoveries To work?

3. ConundrumResolved

  • Even if an Hypothesis underlies an Invention, one realizes an invention through trial and error.
  • Reduction of an inventive idea to practice is through experimentation or through an accumulation of Observations (try,try, and try again).
  • Hypothesis is a purported relationship between or among observations. Observations are made, not proven.
  • By definition, discovery is not derived from theory.Discovery is an unanticipated event .


  • Matters of Life and Death
  • 1900: Patients battle illness, while doctors can do little more than counsel and comfort them and keep them clean.
  • Today: Doctors treat and often cure patients with a vast array of medicines and medical technologies, but some diseases are still incurable.

5. Mysteries of the Universe

  • 1900: The Milky Way galaxy (including some unexplained nebular clouds) is the known universe. Newton's laws explain the physical world. Matter is composed of atoms.
  • Today: The Milky Way is just one galaxy among countless millions we have observed in the universe. There is no set of laws that explains all phenomena in the physical world, although there are many theories. Atoms are composed of many subatomic particles, all of which derive from energy.

6. In Search of Ourselves

  • 1900: There is no cure for the mentally ill, who are confined to insane asylums. "Mind" and "body" are thought of as two separate things.
  • Today: Mental illness can be treated with a range of therapies and medications. We know a great deal about the chemistry and the parts of the brain that control our behavior and thoughts.

7. Bigger, Better, Faster

  • 1900: The only way to view the Olympic games in Paris is in person. News about the games travels to America via telegraph and is printed in newspapers.
  • Today: Millions worldwide will watch the 2004 Greek Olympics on television, transmitted instantaneously by satellite. The news will spread as well by radio, newspaper, and the World Wide Web.

8. Origins

  • 1900: There is no good explanation for catastrophic events such as earthquakes. The Earth is thought to be a mere 50 million years old, and the evolution of species is hotly debated.
  • Today: The plates that make up the Earth's crust move over time, causing earthquakes and volcanoes. The earth is known to be 4,500 million years old. The genetic code of DNA, which drives evolution, is better understood every day.

9. People and Discoveries

  • 1900 Freud's book, "The Interpretation of Dreams" released
  • 1900 Planck discovers the quantum nature of energy
  • 1901 Marconi receives radio signal over Atlantic
  • 1903 Wright brothers fly first motorized plane
  • 1905 Binet pioneers intelligence testing
  • 1905 Einstein publishes the special theory of relativity
  • 1907 Radiometric dating finds Earth is 2.2 billion years old
  • 1909 Ehrlich finds cure for syphilis
  • 1912 Leavitt sees correlation between Cepheids' period and luminosity
  • 1912 Wegener proposes idea of continental drift

10. In 1901Max Planck (1858 - 1947)devised a theory that perfectly described the experimental evidence, but part of it was a radical new idea: energy did not flow in a steady continuum, but was delivered in discrete packets Planck later calledquanta. 11. Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937)read an article that grabbed his attention.The article suggested the possibility of using radio waves to communicate without wires.The year was 1894, and the most modern way to send a message was over telegraph wires. (Heinrich Herz, for whom the units hertz and megahertz are named, had discovered and first produced radio waves in 1888.) 12. People and Discoveries

  • 1913 Ford installs first moving assembly line
  • 1913 Rutherford and Bohr describe atomic structure
  • 1913 Watson launches behaviorist school of psychology
  • 1915 Einstein announces the general theory of relativity
  • 1915 Pellagra shown to be dietary disease
  • 1920 Electric consumer appliances proliferate
  • 1920 KDKA begins to broadcast
  • 1922 Banting and Best isolate insulin
  • 1923 Eugenics movement reaches its height
  • 1923 Piaget describes stages of cognitive development
  • 1924 Hubble identifies a new galaxy
  • 1926 Television is developed
  • 1927 Big bang theory is introduced
  • 1927 Heisenberg the states uncertainty principle

13. Ford installs first moving assembly line 1913 14. People and Discoveries

  • 1928Fleming discovers penicillin
  • 1929 Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding
  • 1931 Lawrence invents the cyclotron
  • 1932 Chadwick discovers the neutron
  • 1935 Moniz develops lobotomy for mental illness
  • 1935 Nylon is invented

15. In 1934 they pulled their first long, strong, flexible strands of a synthetic polymer fiber out of a test tube. The corporation patented it as " nylon " Wallace Carothers (1896 - 1937) 16. DR. EGAS MONIZ(1875-1955)

  • Moniz who was born in Portugal, studied medicine in the University of Coimbra and neurology in Bordeaux and Paris. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of Neurology but he entered politics and served as minister of Foreign Affairs and later as Ambassador to Spain. He left politics, returned to the University of Coimbra where he conceived visualization of cerebral blood vessels by roentgenography. The medium he developed with comparative safety was sodium iodide. When colloidal thorium dioxide was developed he followed up this lead for cerebral angiography to visualize intracranial tumor, vascular abnormalities, aneurysms. He also developed frontal leucotomy for psychology. Both cerebral angiography and psychosurgery have given him lasting fame.

17. People and Discoveries

  • 1938 Electroshock therapy introduced
  • 1942 Fermi creates controlled nuclear reaction
  • 1945 ENIAC is built
  • 1945 The first atomic bomb is detonated
  • 1947 Libby introduces radiocarbon dating
  • 1947 Transistor is invented
  • 1950 Drugs developed for leukemia
  • 1952 Drug for treating schizophrenia identified
  • 1952 Salk produces polio vaccine
  • 1953 Amino acids are created in laboratory

18. Transistor is invented 1947.The group was led byWilliam Shockleyand included Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and others, physicists who had worked withquantum theory , especially in solids. After two years of frustrating but very exciting work, Bardeen and Brattain created an amplifying circuit that seemed to work, using the element germanium. 19. Salk produces polio vaccine 1952 20. .A bank of blinking lights indicate the mysterious processes going on within: That classic symbol of a computer has lasted long after computers evolved into friendly desktop tools. This was not a dream of science fiction, but a representation of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer), the gigantic machine credited with starting the modern computer age ENIAC is built 1945 (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer) 21. The first atomic bomb is detonated 1945 22. People and Discoveries

  • 1953 Great Global Rift is discovered
  • 1953 Piltdown Man is revealed as fake
  • 1953 Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA
  • 1954 First successful kidney transplant performed
  • 1959 Leakey family discovers human ancestors
  • 1960 Hess proposes sea-floor spreading
  • 1962 Rachel Carlsons "Silent Spring" is published

23. Watson and Crick used Randalls data and that of other scientists to build their ultimately correct and detailed description of DNA's structure in 1953. Franklin was not bitter, but pleased, and set out to publish a corroborating report of the Watson-Crick model. Her career was eventually cut short by illness. It is a tremendous shame that Franklin did not receive due credit for her essential role in this discovery, either during her lifetime or after her untimely death at age 37 due to cancer Rosalind Franklin (1920 - 1958) 24. Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA 1953 25. Disturbed by the profligate use of synthetic chemical pesticides after World War II,Rachel Carsonreluctantly changed her focus in order to warn the public about the long term effects of misusing pesticides. InSilent Spring(1962) she challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world. 26. People and Discoveries

  • 1963 Magnetic bands provide evidence of sea-floor spreading
  • 1965 Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation
  • 1967 Bell and Hewish discover pulsars