In 1922 scientist digging near theIndus Rivercame upon theruinsof an ancient city that they calledMohhenjo-Daro.
Thecitywas amazingly well planned with wide, straight streets and large buildings.It had asewersystem and a large wall fortress.
Mehnjo-Daro was part of acivilizationthat developed about 4,500 year ago.
The people who lived there were part of one of the worlds oldestcivilizations .Over thecenturies , many other people moved into the region.Some camepeacefullyOthers marched in withswordsin their hand.All of theseinvaderscontributed to South AsianCulture
South Asian culture, in turn, influenced cultures of other regions.Hinduismis practiced bymillionsof people today.
Between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.Cinvadersknown asAryansswept down on the people of theIndusValley.
The Indus Valley farmers were no match for theAryan soldiersin horse-drawn chariots.
In time, theAryansmoved eastward to theGanges River , laying claim to much of northernIndia .
The Aryans ruled northern India for more than 1,000 years.They introduced new ways of living.
For example, they divided people into three classespriests ,warriors , and ordinary working people.
This division grew out ofAryanreligious writings called theVedas .
In time the Aryans drew theconqueredpeople into their classsystem .
By 500 B.C.There was a strict division of classes.Europeanslater called it the class system.
EachCaste , or class, had special duties and work.
The caste system became a central part of a new system of belief that also emerged from Aryan religious ideas and practices.
Thissystemof beliefs,Hinduism , is the worldsoldestlivingreligion .
Hinduismis unlike other major world religions.It has no onesinglefounder.However it has many great religiousthinkers .
Also,Hindusworship many gods and goddesses, but they believe in a single spirit.To Hindus, the various gods andgoddessesrepresent different parts of thisspirit.
Armstrong, HB. (2008). Exploring our world: people, places, and cultures . New York City, NY, USA: McGraw Hill Glencoe.